European countries, like the rest of the world, will "pay the price of war" in Ukraine in 2023, predicts the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in a report published on Monday 26 September. “Global growth prospects have darkened,” writes the organization, which expects global GDP to grow by 2.2% for the coming year – against 2.8% initially forecast last June.

And the euro zone occupies a prominent place in this very dark picture: its growth is undergoing the most significant revision of all the regions of the world, forecast at 0.3% – against 1.6% in June. The OECD also anticipates a recession scenario for Germany in 2023, that is to say a period of decline in its economic activity over at least two consecutive quarters. German GDP – the largest European economy – is expected to plunge next year, down 0.7%, while the previous forecast predicted an increase of 1.7%.

“This OECD forecast is realistic. It is consistent to consider that in the Euro Zone, it is probably Germany that will suffer the most this winter from the energy shock”, explains Gustavo Horenstein, economist and fund manager at Dorval Asset Management. “The recession that will affect Berlin is expected because of its dependence on Russian gas and the importance of the manufacturing industry in its GDP – a sector which is very sensitive to questions of energy supply. »

Unlike Berlin, its main European neighbors should escape this prospect: growth of 0.4% is expected in Italy, 1.5% in Spain and 0.6% in France – while Bercy still expects 1% for its 2023 budget. But these OECD forecasts could still be revised downwards depending on the evolution, this winter, of the current energy crisis.

"If it's very cold, stocks will run out faster"

“Significant uncertainties surround these projections”, notes the organization, which points to a risk “of worsening fuel shortages, in particular gas” in the event of a particularly harsh winter. Growth in the euro zone, forecast at 0.3%, could then be further reduced by an additional 1.25 percentage points in this worst-case scenario. This would then have the effect of inevitably plunging the vast majority of countries in the region into recession for the whole of 2023.

The recession in several European countries “will quite simply depend on the temperatures this winter”, according to Gustavo Horenstein. “If it's very cold, stocks will run out faster. The risk is that the demand for gas and electricity for heating is much higher than the production capacities (of these two energies). »

And in a context of already high gas and electricity prices, the risk of shortages exists this winter according to the OECD: “This could happen if additional non-Russian supplies from non-EU countries do not materialize to the extent expected, or if gas demand is exceptionally high due to a severe winter. »

The organization acknowledges that EU gas stocks have been “significantly boosted” this year – between 80% and 90% in most member states – but may prove to be “insufficient”. “A harsh winter could significantly accentuate shortage phenomena,” warns the OECD.

The OECD has established three scenarios relating to the levels of European gas stocks over the winter of 2022-2023.

The international organization for economic studies has also established different scenarios relating to the levels of European gas stocks over the period October 2022 - April 2023. The first assumes a 10% drop in gas consumption , the result of the implementation of energy sobriety plans by several European countries. In this case, stocks would be sufficient for this winter.

In the other two scenarios, the energy situation would become really tense in Europe: in the case of gas consumption similar to the period 2017-2021, there would be an "acute risk of disruption of energy supplies" in February 2023. And for the “harsh winter” scenario, the fall in the level of gas stocks below 30% – corresponding to a normal operating level – would take place in January.

In addition to the winter weather, the "ability of industry in particular, and of European economies in general, to manage their energy consumption will also be important", notes Gustavo Horenstein.

“Probably no improvement before 2024”

The vertiginous rise in energy prices is already threatening the activity of a growing number of energy-intensive industries – some are forced to reduce their activity, like Duralex and others in the steel industry.

“Most governments, when it comes to dealing with energy issues, prioritize households, utilities, hospitals… and productive industry comes last. In the event of a recession, this is probably where there will be the most damage this winter in Europe, ”said Gustavo Horenstein. In the event of an aggravation of the energy crisis, gas and electricity savings could in fact primarily affect industries which, by reducing their production, would have an impact on the economy of the Euro Zone – this sector represented 23% of European GDP in 2021, according to the World Bank.

Whatever measures are taken in the short term, “the reconstruction of the European energy sector will take years”, notes Gustavo Horenstein.

"We will probably go through a difficult time with a strong economic slowdown. The recession and the domestic inflation to fight are in front of us, we will probably not see an improvement before 2024."

Larry Ricky pour DayNewsWorld



Inflation is at its highest level in the euro zone and the EU for more than 20 years. It reached nearly 10% within the EU in July. A new record since the existence of the single European currency. The three Baltic countries are the Member States most burdened by inflation: Estonia exceeded 23%, Latvia and Lithuania being respectively just above and below 21%.

For the rest, it is mainly the countries of Eastern Europe that are suffering from the sharp rise in prices. The rest of Europe is not spared either. In the Netherlands, for example, the rise in prices exceeds 13% over one year. The Dutch government has taken fewer measures than other European executives to support household purchasing power and fight inflation. Still according to Eurostat data for the same period, it is 8.8% in Germany, 10.3% in Spain, 9% in Italy. In Great Britain this rate was 10.1% in July.

At the other end of the spectrum, France and Malta are doing the best. In particular, Malta has still not raised state-regulated energy prices, thus artificially keeping inflation at zero in this area... "Everyone should have around 9% inflation normally, but France is an exception”, observes Éric Heyer, economist and director of the analysis and forecasting department of the OFCE. With an annual inflation rate of 6.7% in August, can we say that France is doing well compared to its German, Spanish, Italian or British neighbors ?

The tariff shield

If inflation is lower in France, "it's partly thanks to our energy mix", explains Éric Heyer. Continuing to bet on nuclear allows us in particular to be more independent than our German neighbor who imports a lot more fossil fuels. According to figures from the International Energy Agency, Russian oil accounted for only 17% of black gold imports from France in 2019, compared to 34% for Germany.

The other reason and “the most important”, according to Éric Heyer, are “the measures to support households, either with checks or by freezing prices”. Germany, Great Britain and Spain have preferred, by political choice, financial assistance to citizens by distributing vouchers and discounts on fuel, without freezing prices. France preferred to bet big on the tariff shield by freezing gas prices until the end of 2022.. “If there was no such protection, the electricity bill would increase in January 2023 by 120 euros per month and the gas bill of 180 euros per month”.

In line with remarks made this weekend by the Minister of Public Accounts Gabriel Attal, Bruno Le Maire confirmed that all French people would continue to benefit in 2023 from an attenuated form of "tariff shield" on gas prices and electricity.

The surge in energy prices should therefore be contained and limited at least until the beginning of 2023 for the French.

At the start of 2023, "there will be an increase for everyone in the price of gas and electricity, which will be as contained as possible, to the extent that our public finances allow us", guaranteed the Minister of Economy. Since the fall of 2021, the "tariff shield" and government rebates on the price of fuel have cost 24 billion euros, according to a recent figure from Bercy, but the specter of yellow vests helping...

The limits of the tariff shield

And yet for Jean-Marc Daniel, the tariff shield "is an artificial modification of prices, which, in the end will be just a transfer for future generations". They make it possible to limit inflation “in a limited time” but “the creation of a budget deficit cannot last forever”. And it is obvious for all the specialists, “inflation will rise again when we lift these tariff shields”.

If the State is coping with the crisis with the means at hand and succeeds in limiting the effects of the drop in purchasing power, it is at the cost of a debt which is accumulating and which we will have to absorb one day or another.

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld




Since the Western countries imposed sanctions on Moscow after the launch of its offensive against Ukraine, Russia has several times reduced its gas deliveries to Europe, which is highly dependent on it. Russia accounted for some 40% of EU gas imports until last year.

Suspension of Gazprom deliveries to France for unpaid invoice

And the Russian giant Gazprom, notifying the French group of not having received “in full the financial sums due for deliveries”, announced Tuesday evening the total suspension of its deliveries to the French group Engie from Thursday September 1, 2022.

"Gazprom Export has notified Engie of a complete suspension of gas deliveries from September 1, 2022 until full receipt of the financial sums due for the deliveries", indicated the Russian group in a press release published Tuesday evening on its website. Telegram account.

Under a decree by Russian President Vladimir Putin signed at the end of March, Gazprom specifies that "it is prohibited to deliver more natural gas to a foreign buyer if the buyer has not made payment in full within the set period in the contract”.

Reserve stocks?

French Prime Minister Elisabeth Borne, wanting to “reassure Engie customers”, however said that the French group had “found other sources of supply”, without specifying which ones, in the Daily magazine on the TMC channel.

Deliveries of Russian gas to Engie had already dropped significantly since the start of the conflict in Ukraine, recently dropping to just 1.5 TWh (terawatt-hour) per month, according to Engie. This figure is to be related to “total annual supplies in Europe greater than 400 TWh” for Engie, adds the main gas supplier in France, of which the French State holds nearly 24%.

At the end of July, Engie had assured that it had significantly reduced its “financial and physical exposure to Russian gas”, which already represented only around 4% of its supplies. "It's completely within the margin of the flexibility of our portfolios, so we're not at all worried," said its managing director Catherine MacGregor at the time.

Last Thursday, France's gas stocks exceeded the 90% filling threshold for the winter (91.47% Tuesday morning), according to the European platform Aggregated Gas Storage Inventory (AGSI).

Still, the Europeans are rushing in dispersed order to find gas elsewhere, far from being ready for this challenge that they have imposed on themselves...

Europeans desperate for gas...

To counterbalance the drop in Russian deliveries, the different states of the European Union are indeed negotiating on their own with the gas supplier countries.

Emmanuel Macron's trip to Algeria last week, officially intended to strengthen relations between Paris and Algiers, led to meager negotiations to obtain more gas. .

France is not the first to try to obtain more gas from its Algerian partner. Mario Draghi came to sign a new contract in July for 4 billion m³ of additional gas for Italy. Spain had negotiated Algerian gas a few weeks before. Other European countries have chosen alliances with different partners, such as Norway and the United States. For his part, the German Chancellor, Olaf Scholz, traveled to Canada to sign an agreement on Tuesday night for gas deliveries which will begin around 2025.

A good way for Justin Trudeau's government to count on a reliable partner who will finance its new infrastructures for liquefied natural gas and hydrogen. In addition, some countries find themselves unable to discuss with other gas suppliers for reasons of simple geography. Viktor Orban's Hungary has gone to ask for more gas directly from Moscow, while the new interim government in Bulgaria is tempted to do the same.

In this context of energy crisis, "The Jacques Delors Institute has been pleading for ten years for the creation of a common gas purchasing center at European level", a structure that already exists for uranium, recalls Thomas Pellerin-Carlin .

A difficult solution, however, to put in place insofar as the choice of the energy mix falls within the competence of the States, with very different situations...

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



The President of the Republic is preparing for a turbulent return, with the French overtaken by the economic consequences of the war in Ukraine and a political opposition in ambush. Moreover, Friday August 19, in Bormes-les-Mimosas (Var), Emmanuel Macron asked the French "to agree to pay the price of our freedom and our values". “The executive is indeed facing considerable challenges: on the geopolitical level with the war in Ukraine, on the energy level with potential restrictions this winter, and climate issues very present throughout the summer, lists the political scientist Bruno Cautrès. And then, to complicate all this, economic issues with the question of inflation and purchasing power. ".

Inflation and purchasing power

In France as in Europe, the economic consequences are heavy, starting with the return of inflation. The vote on the bill on purchasing power in July enabled the government to provide a first round of responses. The more than 20 billion euros of measures voted – not without difficulty – this summer to support purchasing power (fuel discount, back-to-school bonus, revaluation of social minima, tariff shield on gas and electricity, increase in cap on tax exemption for overtime…) will they be enough to calm the concerns of the French? Soaring prices, in particular food and energy, will continue to put the executive under pressure. While prices at the pump are down, inflation exceeded 6% in July.

Energy sovereignty

Energy sovereignty will also be on the back-to-school menu. We must "work for our energy sovereignty, to support the French, our companies in the context of this war", declared Emmanuel Macron from the Var. Indeed, autonomy may be difficult to achieve and possible energy shortages following the war waged by Russia in Ukraine cannot be ruled out. In this context, Algeria, the leading African exporter of natural gas, and where the president is going at the end of the week, could be one of the alternative solutions while waiting for profound changes in energy policy.

The climate emergency, after a remarkable summer

The summer was marked by fires and climatic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, such as last week's thunderstorms in Corsica. They recalled the urgency of issues related to global warming. This is why the President of the Republic will organize a government seminar at the end of August devoted in particular to ecology, while the Prime Minister, Elisabeth Borne, must also deliver a "strong speech on energy sobriety and transition" during the university. Medef summer school. The Head of State also asked him to “submit in the fall an ecological planning agenda broken down by month and year”, specifies the Elysée.


The summer period was also marked by the return of security to the public debate, after several miscellaneous events, including a gunshot after an urban rodeo and one death and one serious injury during a refusal to comply in Vénissieux (Rhône ) . Occupying all the media space during the summer - as Nicolas Sarkozy did in 2002 - after his reappointment, the Minister of the Interior, Gérald Darmanin, will present a security bill in the fall. The government could convince Les Républicains with its orientation and programming bill from the Ministry of the Interior (Lopmi). The text should make it possible to grant an additional 15 billion euros in budget over five years and will be examined in October in Parliament. The minister of the Interior, Gérald Darmanin, on the other hand, was summoned by the Elysée and Matignon to postpone his bill on immigration. It is scheduled for December, after the organization of a "big debate" in Parliament, as announced by the Minister in early August.

The 2023 Budget

The finance bill for 2023 promises to be perilous for the executive, who only has the word "compromise" in his mouth.

Despite its promises to change the method, the government is already anticipating a forced passage, with possible recourse to article 49.3, to have the 2023 finance bill adopted, for lack of an absolute majority for the macronists in the Assembly. Traditionally, the oppositions vote against to express their disagreement with government policy.

Explosive reforms

The autumn should also mark the real kick-off for the reforms supposed to make it possible to achieve the two main economic policy objectives promised by the Head of State for 2027: full employment and a public deficit reduced to less than 3% of gross domestic product (GDP)? “We can move towards full employment, but we must continue to carry out the essential reforms”, he recalled in his interview on July 14.

Among these, the reform of unemployment insurance, intended both to make budgetary savings and to encourage a return to work, plans to modulate the allowances of the persons concerned according to the health of the economy. . A principle that promises to crystallize tensions, both on the side of the opposition and the unions. Conditioning of the RSA to 15 or 20 hours of weekly activity, already tested in Dijon and Alsace, is also planned.

The other is pensions. The proposal made by Emmanuel Macron during the presidential campaign plans to postpone the legal retirement age to 65, with a system of long and arduous careers. The Minister of Labour, Olivier Dussopt, nevertheless promised to consult the unions just after the first meeting of the National Council for Refoundation.

A perilous return therefore for the government and for Emmanuel Macron who has every interest in taking care of his return to carry out his reforms. Especially since according to the latest Ifop survey published by the Journal du Dimanche, the popularity rating of the President of the Republic is currently only 37%, while that of Prime Minister Élisabeth Borne is now higher (41% ). In an attempt to breathe new life into politics and embody a change of method, Emmanuel Macron will therefore launch the National Council for Refoundation (CNR) on September 8, which will bring together "the political, economic, social, associative forces of elected representatives of the territories and citizens drawn by lot", according to the Head of State.

But the CGT is already planning an interprofessional strike day focused on purchasing power, wages and pension reform, on September 29.

Emily Jackson for DayNewsWorld



After four days of often stormy debates, the National Assembly completed, overnight from Tuesday to Wednesday, the first reading of the amending budget for 2022.

At the end of last week, the deputies had already adopted an “emergency” bill in support of purchasing power, representing a total of twenty billion euros in aid. This second text provides for 44 billion euros in additional expenditure. This draft amended budget was adopted by 293 votes to 146, with 17 abstentions.

The Republicans, to whom the executive has repeatedly given satisfaction, supported the text. The deputies of the National Rally, on the other hand, did not take part in the vote and left the hemicycle.

End of the audiovisual license fee

The abolition of the public audiovisual fee of €138, Emmanuel Macron's campaign promise, was voted with the votes of the presidential majority, LR and RN. The Nupes voted against unanimously. LFI provides for an appeal before the Constitutional Council. To compensate for the end of the royalty, the deputies allocated to the financing of public broadcasting a fraction of the VAT for an amount of approximately 3.7 billion euros.

Overtime and RTT

The increase in the overtime tax exemption ceiling has been voted. The deputies also adopted an amendment tabled by LR, allowing employees to transform their RTT into salary.

Revalorization of the index point of civil servants

MEPs endorsed the 3.5% increase in the value of the index point for civil servants, which serves as the basis for their remuneration.

Increased fuel discount

At the end of August, the rebate of 18 cents per liter ended. It will be replaced by a larger discount of thirty centimes per liter in September and October. Then will drop to €0.10 in November and December. With regard to the "transport bonus", paid by companies that wish to pay their employees to cover their fuel costs, the ceiling is increased from €200 to €400.

Maintenance of the tariff shield on energy

The text extends, until the end of the year, the tariff shield on energy prices, which makes it possible to cap the increase in electricity bills at 4% and to freeze gas prices at their level of October 2021. Surprise amendment: the deputies also voted exceptional aid of 230 million euros intended for French people who heat themselves with fuel oil. Three million households should benefit from it.

Compensation for the RSA increase for the departments

To fully compensate for the 4% increase in active solidarity income (RSA), the Assembly decided to allocate 120 million to the departments that pay it. The measure was voted by the left, the RN, LR but also the Horizons group, against the advice of the government. A first.

The majority found at fault on two measures

On several occasions during the examination of the text, the majority therefore found itself caught out by the vote of the deputies, in particular when they approved the release of 230 million euros in aid for homes heating with fuel oil. or concerning the financing of the RSA (active solidarity income), the departments distributing it should receive 120 million euros to compensate for the increase in its amount.

Total renationalization of EDF

The amended draft budget opens up 44 billion euros in credits for 2022, including 9.7 million to finance the renationalization of EDF. The goal is to finance the group and to invest in particular in a “relaunch of the nuclear program in France”, with six new EPR reactors, indicated the Minister of the Economy.

The bill on purchasing power arrives from today in the Senate, with a right-wing majority, and will have to decide on several measures. It will then be the turn of the amending budget for 2022.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld


The Court of Auditors has published its annual report on “the accounts and management of the services of the Presidency of the Republic. “And mentions in particular the amount of expenses related to Brigitte Macron.

If the latter has no official status at the Elysée, she is however the First Lady to whom certain missions with the Head of State fall. The report also lists the "missions devolved" to the first lady. She must "represent France alongside the Head of State at international summits and meetings, respond to requests from French people who wish to meet her, supervise official receptions at the Élysée Palace and support charitable, cultural or social works. which contribute to the international influence of France. »

Then the Court of Auditors accounts for its expenses. According to the Court of Auditors, in 2021, Brigitte Macron cost “€292,454 (compared to €291,826 in 2020). »

"In 2021, Mrs Macron took part in nine official trips outside Île-de-France with the President of the Republic, including three abroad, i.e. twice as many as in 2020 but at a level still lower than that of 2019 (12 trips in 2019, four in 2020)” the report also explains.

Brigitte Macron "has no representation budget for her clothes and benefits, for her public and official activities, from the services of the Presidency hairdresser."

Emily Jackson for DayNewsWorld


The summit on the reconstruction of Ukraine has been held since Monday July 4, 2022 in Lugano, Switzerland with the participation of delegations from 38 States and 14 international organizations. A large Ukrainian delegation is also taking part.

Every year for the past five years, a high-level conference has been held on Ukraine and the reforms it needs to carry out, particularly in the fight against the corruption that is eating away at the country's economy. In its 2021 report, the NGO Transparency International indeed ranks this country 122nd out of 180, still very far behind its EU member neighbors (the worst placed, Bulgaria, is in 78th place).

The war led by Russia, however, has somewhat disrupted the program. And it is reconstruction that is in question until Tuesday in Lugano. Speaking in a video message, President Zelensky stressed that this should be "the common task of the whole democratic world" and "the most important contribution to world peace".

Cost estimated at 750 billion

Participants reflected on a recovery plan for the war-torn country by setting priorities and identifying funding needs. The cost of reconstruction was estimated on Monday at at least 750 billion dollars by the Ukrainian Prime Minister, wondering about “who should pay” before answering that a “key source” of financing should be the seizure of assets of Russia and Russian oligarchs frozen under international sanctions against Moscow. Estimates of the amount of frozen assets range from 287 billion to 479 billion euros ($300 billion to $500 billion), according to Chmygal.

For its part, the Kyiv School of Economics (KSE) had estimated the damage caused so far to buildings and infrastructure at nearly 104 billion dollars. In addition, the country's economy has already lost 600 billion dollars according to some estimates.

Strong UK involvement

Very involved, the United Kingdom, which is one of Ukraine's most active allies, will notably support the reconstruction of the city and the region of kyiv, at the request of President Zelensky, the Foreign Office indicated on Sunday . London also plans to work with Kyiv and its allies to host the Ukraine Recovery Conference in 2023 and establish an office in the UK capital to help coordinate those rebuilding efforts.

Towards a “Marshall Plan” for Ukraine

But it is above all the prospect of a “Marshall plan” which is at the center of the discussions. The participants must, in fact, draw the outline of a plan similar to the American economic program which had made it possible to raise Western Europe from the ruins of the Second World War, this time intended for Ukraine. With this in mind, the European Investment Bank (EIB) must also propose the creation of a new fund for Ukraine, which could reach 100 billion euros, according to sources familiar with the plan.

The expression “Marshall Plan” has been used on several occasions with regard to Ukraine by the German Chancellor Olaf Scholz or even the President of the European Council Charles Michel. The one adopted in the United States in April 1948 and entitled "European Recovery Program" (ERP) offered all the countries of Europe, including the USSR and the other communist countries, to benefit from the assistance to material reconstruction and financial recovery for a period of four years. it's necessary

The President of the Swiss Confederation Ignazio Cassis, however, recalled that reconstruction and reforms were "not in competition" to prepare a European, green and digital Ukraine.

"They are getting stronger," added Mr. Cassis, who called for continuing, despite the war, efforts against corruption and to guarantee the functioning of justice.

Alyson Braxton for DayNewsWorld



Meeting in Bavaria at Elmau Castle from 26 to 28 June 2022 the industrial powers of the G7 proposed a range of responses to global crises. From the war in Ukraine to the threats of food shortages and the peril of the climate, a look back at the commitments made by the leaders of Germany, Canada, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and from the United Kingdom.

The war and the reconstruction of Ukraine

Summit participants were keen to show a united face against Moscow. The G7, joined by five emerging countries, including India, condemned the "illegal" invasion of Ukraine by Russia. The allies notably promised to provide financial, humanitarian, military and diplomatic support and to remain at Ukraine's side "as long as necessary". The financial aid released for this country in 2022 now reaches 29.5 billion dollars. kyiv should also receive new armaments, in particular sophisticated American anti-aircraft missiles.

To further dry up Russia's revenue, G7 leaders will begin work to put in place a Russian oil cap mechanism to hit a major Moscow revenue stream, a senior White House official has said. . The G7 also plans to impose a ban on the import of Russian gold. To control the price of the black gold sold by Russia, the seven countries "are considering a series of approaches", including "a possible ban on all services that allow the maritime transport of Russian crude oil and petroleum products". , unless the oil is purchased below the ceiling that would be set.

The seven powers, at the end of their meeting, say they are "resolved to support the reconstruction of Ukraine through an international conference and reconstruction plan".


Leaders in Germany have denounced Beijing's "non-transparent and market-distorting" international trade practices. They therefore wish to free themselves from dependence on China, by “promoting diversification and resistance to economic coercion” and by “reducing strategic dependencies”. G7 members also raised concerns about human rights abuses in China, urging it to respect fundamental freedoms. They stressed that the situation in Tibet and Xinjiang, where "forced labor" is rampant, is of "great concern" to them.

The final statement also urges China to "fulfil its commitments" under the Sino-British Joint Declaration, guaranteeing Hong Kong certain freedoms and autonomy for 50 years under the "One country, two systems" model.

Alleviating the food crisis

The G7 pledged an additional $4.5 billion to alleviate the global food crisis, bringing total joint commitments to $14 billion for the year. The seven powers also called on countries and companies with large food stocks to assume their responsibilities to alleviate the food crisis triggered by the conflict in Ukraine. They also urge "all countries to avoid excessive storage of food, which can lead to further price increases". In addition, she also reiterated her "urgent call on Russia to end, unconditionally, the blockade of Ukrainian Black Sea ports, the destruction of essential port and transport infrastructure, silos and grain terminals , to the illegal appropriation by Russia of agricultural products and equipment in Ukraine and to all other activities that hinder the production and export of production and Ukrainian exports of foodstuffs”. Russia, for its part, denies having blocked the passage of cargo ships and accuses Western sanctions of contributing to the food crisis.

Climate commitments

The G7 countries have agreed to strengthen cooperation in the fight against global warming. But their ambitions, which come up against fears of energy shortages, have disappointed conservationists. The powers, which must in the short term do without Russian gas, are under pressure to meet their climate commitments.

In their final declaration, the Heads of State or Government certainly reaffirmed "their unwavering commitment" to the Paris Agreement, which aims to limit global warming to 1.5° above the pre-industrial era and their objective to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. They also underlined the "increased urgency to act" to reduce global greenhouse gas at 2019 levels. The G7 has also committed to a “highly decarbonized road sector by 2030”.

The summit also agreed to create a "Climate Club" made up of volunteer countries to coordinate and accelerate efforts to combat global warming. But critical voices pointed out after the summit that the idea remained vague and risked becoming "just another club", according to Martin Kaiser, the executive director of Greenpeace in Germany.


Emmanuel Macron, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, US President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen, European Council President Charles Michel, Prime Italian Minister Mario Draghi and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, have pledged to end, by the end of 2022, all new direct public support for the untapped international fossil fuel energy sector. However, in the face of the rush for alternative energy sources to emancipate themselves from Russian fossil fuels, the G7 agreed that public investments could be made in the gas sector "as an interim response".

By announcing these commitments, although the G7 no longer represents the seven largest economic powers, Joe Biden is trying to give this group a more political turn, that of the fight of democracies against autocracies...

Alize Marion for DayNewsWorld


Does the shortage have to threaten for the major French energy companies EDF, TotalEnergies and Engie, in a joint forum published in theSunday Journal, Sunday June 26, 2022, to call for sobriety, in the name of social cohesion ?.

Should the time be serious for the Minister of the Economy to present the said sobriety as a necessary passage ”, without alternative?

Three days earlier, during a visit to a national gas control center in Ile-de-France, Elisabeth Borne, accompanied by Agnès Pannier-Runacher, had already set the scene. “We have to be energy efficient. I don't know if it's the right term, but in any case we must reduce by 40% by 2050” call for sobriety. A roadmap should apply from this summer to the State, administrations and large companies.

Now the energy companies are turning into “fathers of morality”. "We call for awareness and collective and individual action for each of us to change our behavior and immediately limit our consumption of energy, electricity, gas and petroleum products", wrote Jean-Bernard Lévy and Patrick Pouyanné , CEO of EDF and TotalEnergies, as well as Catherine MacGregor, Managing Director of Engie, in an article published in the Sunday Journal

In the forum of the JDD, the three leaders of French energy suppliers therefore call for "a collective and immediate effort" to avoid a winter under tension. The three call on the French to "immediately" reduce their consumption of fuel, electricity and gas. According to the three energy access providers in France, the risks of shortages and soaring prices are such that they will threaten “social cohesion” next winter.

Indeed "for months now, the European energy system has been under great tension and the French energy system has not been spared", explain Catherine MacGregor, Managing Director of Engie, Jean-Bernard Lévy, Chairman and CEO of EDF. , and Patrick Pouyanné, Chairman and CEO of TotalEnergies. “Acting this summer will allow us to be better prepared to tackle next winter, and in particular to preserve our gas reserves.

These tensions are explained by the war in Ukraine and the Western sanctions, first of all. Deliveries of Russian gas by pipeline have "decline sharply for some countries, including France". “Although increasing, imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) are today still too limited to compensate for these declines. The level of alert on gas stocks at European level is therefore high and rationing measures are put in place in certain countries”, they underline.

The world oil market could therefore experience tensions between the level of production and demand during the summer. In the United States, we are entering the 'driving season', the period of the year when car travel is the most important, because people go on vacation. And therefore the one where we need more automotive fuel. In China, the relaxation of the drastic confinements imposed on certain cities will lead to a return to normal travel, and therefore an increase in oil demand.

The weather also has something to do with it. "Climatic conditions and drought are amputating hydraulic production", write the three leaders in their forum. A large part of the French nuclear fleet actually requires water from rivers to be cooled. Consequently, too low a water level, as was the case at the beginning of June for example in the Rhône, can jeopardize these activities.

To these causes are added other handicaps as suggested by the manager of the electricity transmission network (RTE) two weeks ago with TF1. "We are in fact in a pivotal period, marked by a series of events to manage: the closure of oil and coal-fired power stations, that [nuclear] of Fessenheim, but also the delay in the development of other modes of generation”, notes RTE.

In addition to May 24, 27 of the 56 French nuclear reactors were shut down, according to EDF. That's almost half. An unprecedented situation, which is explained by planned closures but also by an unforeseen problem of corrosion. While half of the nuclear fleet is shut down, the Ministry of Energy Transition also reserves “the possibility of operating the Saint-Avold [coal] power plant for a few more hours if we need it l 'next winter'.

In fact, the risk of a shortage hovers so that in the short term, any savings in gas or electricity made today will make it possible to secure stocks for the winter. In the medium term, the government would display more ambitious intentions. "The objective is a roadmap that will allow us to reduce energy consumption by 10% compared to our usual benchmark within two years," said the Minister for Energy Transition. This corresponds to “the first step of the RTE scenario, which aims for a reduction of 40% by 2050”.

However, France is not the only country concerned. To compensate for the reductions in Russian gas deliveries, Germany will, for example, return to coal. A provisional appeal, promises the German Minister of Economy and Climate, who recognizes that this is a bitter decision. The extension of certain power plants will be a short-term measure, over a “limited” period, until March 2024, assures Berlin.

Other countries in Europe have recently announced similar measures. Austria, also dependent on Russian gas, has also announced the upcoming restart of a disused coal-fired power plant, in order to be able to compensate for a possible shortage.

Latest example: the Netherlands. Until now, Dutch coal-fired power plants could not operate at more than 35% of their capacity, according to a law in force since January 2022 to reduce the country's CO2 emissions. They can now "operate at full capacity", announced Monday, June 20 the Dutch Minister of the Environment and Energy, Rob Jetten.

While she advocates energy sobriety, Elisabeth Borne announced last Thursday the extension of the tariff shield until the end of the year. A good signal to encourage people to reduce their consumption ?

Alize Marion for DayNewsWorld



The text, which is intended to help the French cope with inflation, must be presented to the Council of Ministers on July 6 and then examined in Parliament in the process. This must be the first major text of Emmanuel Macron's second five-year term. The "purchasing power" bill, supposed to be presented to the Council of Ministers on Wednesday July 6 and examined in Parliament in the process, should make it possible to relieve the French, weighed down by inflation which should reach an average of 5.5% in 2022.

Its content is already the subject of a bitter political battle between the oppositions and the executive, the former counting on the absence of an absolute majority in the National Assembly of the presidential camp to impose some of their key measures. This is why the Minister of the Economy alerted on the level of indebtedness of France, this Monday. A way of calling on the opposition to restraint before the debates on the purchasing power bill in the National Assembly.

France has reached its “alert rating” on public finances, indeed estimated the Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire, Monday June 27, at a time when the executive is seeking a compromise with the opposition for its project. purchasing power law.

"Everything is not possible, quite simply because we have reached the alert level on public finances", affirmed Mr. Le Maire, adding that "financing conditions have changed" and that today the France borrows “at more than 2%” to finance public spending, when it did so recently at negative or very low rates. According to the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Insee), French public debt exceeded 2,900 billion euros at the end of the third quarter, or 114.5% of gross domestic product (GDP), due to also from sluggish economic growth.

The purchasing power bill, the subject of all negotiations

On the right, the new president of the Les Républicains group in the National Assembly, Olivier Marleix, strongly insisted on the risk of an increase in the French debt, Monday morning on Europe 1, a few minutes before Mr. The mayor. “On the question of purchasing power and such a problem for our compatriots, obviously we will do everything to converge with the government” and “move forward on these measures”, declared the deputy for Eure-et-Loire then that the Republicans, if they refuse to participate in the government, ensure that they will possibly vote on texts “on a case-by-case basis”.

Mr. Marleix however laid down two conditions: the need to take into account the fact that the question of purchasing power is "a major subject for working France", and "obviously the government will have to agree to to consider the question of the financing of these measures”.

“We will be demanding of the government so that it is funded. The French debt situation today is very serious (…) The government cannot say: “Come on, 30 billion additional debt!” It would be irresponsible,” he said, promising that LR deputies “will make proposals on the subject of financing.”

On the left, the deputy and national secretary of the French Communist Party, Fabien Roussel, wished on CNews "a sharp increase in purchasing power" with in particular "an immediate drop in VAT on gasoline". “We will not be satisfied with crumbs” and “we will all take to the streets if necessary to obtain these measures”, he warned.

A boost of eight billion euros for social benefits

Asked about the proposal made by several opposition parties, such as Les Républicains or the National Rally, for a reduction in fuel tax, Mr. Le Maire assured that the government was going to “discuss” with these formations but that “ the spirit of compromise must be accompanied by a spirit of decision”.

The extension of existing measures

Several measures already implemented in recent months to combat rising prices should be extended. This is the case of the tariff shield on energy (which has already been extended by decree until December 31, 2022), and which caps the sale prices of gas and electricity. The discount of 18 cents per liter on fuels also still holds, at least for the month of August. The government is thinking in parallel about a new device more targeted on large wheelers, but its articulation with the discount is not clear-cut, assured Friday June 24 the Minister of Energy Transition, Agnès Pannier-Runacher.

The inflation allowance, one-off, should also make a comeback under the name of food check. The government has abandoned the idea of ​​a monthly food check, which was to allow access to quality products. This new financial aid, the amount of which has not yet been fixed, will be paid “in one go” and “at the start of the school year”, directly into the bank account of the most modest, announced the Prime Minister, Elisabeth Borne. While ensuring that the reflection continued on a food check more targeted on "quality" and "organic" products.

Finally, the Macron bonus, which appeared during the "yellow vests" crisis, will be made permanent and its ceiling tripled. Companies will therefore be able to pay up to 3,000 euros to their employees, or even 6,000 euros for companies with fewer than 50 employees and those with a profit-sharing agreement.

Revaluations of social benefits

Several social benefits need to be upgraded. Retirement and disability pensions under the basic schemes, the activity bonus (the lump sum of which is 563.68 euros), but also family benefits and social minima, including the active solidarity income (550. 93 euros for a single person without resources), the allowance for disabled adults (919.86 euros maximum), the solidarity allowance for the elderly (916.78 euros for a single person) should increase by 4% , according to the bill consulted. This boost will be retroactive to July 1. The cost of these revaluations amounts to "a little less than 7 billion at the end of 2022", according to Les Echos

The amending finance bill, presented at the same time as the "purchasing power" bill, should also incorporate a 3.5% increase in personalized housing assistance (APL), which would represent a additional expenditure of 168 million euros.

New measures put in place

The government is also planning a series of new measures. Civil servants will thus see the end of the freezing of their index point, which serves as the basis for their remuneration. The public service unions are asking for between 3% for the CFDT and 20% for the CFTC. A 1% increase would cost the state 2 billion euros per year, according to the government, which should announce the value of the new point on June 28.

A reduction in the contributions of the self-employed is also provided for in the bill. It should allow them to earn “550 euros per year at the level of the minimum wage”, assured mid-May the spokesperson for the former government Gabriel Attal.

The bill also provides for an increase in the “transport bonus” paid by companies to their employees to cover part of the cost of their home-work travel. The upper limit of tax and social security exemption for the employer's assumption of the fuel costs of its employees will thus be doubled, from 200 to 400 euros for the years 2022 and 2023. Employees will also be able to combine this bonus with the paid by the employer for 50% of the price of public transport season tickets.

The abolition of the audiovisual license fee should also be effective next fall, with a gain for households of 138 euros, ie a shortfall for the State of more than 3 billion euros net.

The text also wants to open up the possibility of establishing a profit-sharing scheme by the employer even without a branch agreement or with staff representatives. The objective is to allow employees to benefit from the sharing of the value created in the company. On the other hand, the track of an “employee dividend”, which was to make participation in the company compulsory, “does not appear in the initial text at this stage”, confirms the Ministry of Labor.

In addition to these measures, the government plans to include in the amending finance bill a “rent shield”, aimed at capping rent increases for one year at 3.5%, confirmed Bruno.

“Politics is about choices (…) It is imperative to reduce public debt”, but “we must at the same time protect our compatriots who are the most fragile, but protect them responsibly. », concludes Bruno Lemaire.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld




In its latest forecast on Wednesday, the international organization doubled its inflation forecast for its member countries in 2022 to 8.5%.

The consequences of the war in Ukraine could cause inflation to soar to 8.5% among OECD member countries in 2022, the international organization warns in its latest economic forecasts on Wednesday, a level twice as high as the one she anticipated in December.

The rise in prices should then slow in 2023, warns the OECD, which brings together 38 developed countries across the planet, while warning of a worsening of these prospects in the event of new economic shocks.

Global growth for 2022 lowered to 3%

Global growth will strongly feel the consequences of the war in Ukraine this year, the organization also warned, raising its growth expectation to 3% against 4.5% last December. Particularly affected, the euro zone should record a 2.6% increase in its GDP against 4.3% previously forecast, and France, for example, an increase of 2.4% against 4.2% imagined in December by the organization international based in Paris.

"The world will pay a heavy price for the Russian war against Ukraine", warned the number two and chief economist of the OECD, Laurence Boone, in an introductory text to these forecasts entitled "the price of war". “A humanitarian crisis is unfolding before our eyes, leaving thousands dead, forcing millions of refugees to flee their homes and threatening an economic recovery that was on the way after two years of the pandemic,” she continues.

An invoice that changes between geographies

The bill for the war varies significantly depending on the geographical area: the euro zone sees its growth forecast significantly reduced to 2.6% against 4.3% in December, with a plunge for Germany to 1.9% (-2 .2 points) and France at 2.4% (-1.8 points). The United Kingdom is doing quite well this year with 3.6% expected (-1.1%) but stalls completely at 0% for the 2023 forecast, against 2.1 expected previously.

The United States should experience growth of 2.5% in 2022, against 3.7% expected in December, and China of 4.4% (against 5.1%). Still deemed “temporary” in September 2021 by the OECD, inflation has picked up markedly with the persistence of problems in supply chains and soaring prices for energy, food and metals, aftermath of the war.

While the OECD sees these pressures easing next year, it nevertheless warns that, given the prevailing uncertainty, they could still worsen.

But soaring inflation could lead to sharp interest rate hikes by central banks, further threatening an already shaky economic recovery, the organization fears.

Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld



After having denied the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on its territory for nearly two years, Pyongyang reported an explosion of contamination.

While almost all countries have been affected to varying degrees by successive waves of Covid-19 for more than two years, North Korea has always claimed to be part of the three territories, with Turkmenistan and the Tuvalu islands, to have never been exposed to the virus, observes Vice.

If doubts still remain as to this absence of SARS-CoV-2 on North Korean territory since the start of the pandemic, the situation has in any case changed since Thursday, May 12. That day, state media reported – admittedly half-heartedly – ​​the very first case of Covid-19 in the country. Since then, there have been nearly 1.2 million people infected and fifty deaths from infection with the virus. An impressive development in such a short time which, according to Vice, could be greatly underestimated. A question is now on everyone's lips: how did the virus enter the country? Especially given the fact that “North Korea was one of the first to seal its foreign borders in January 2020 and to paralyze international trade – including with China”, recalls Vice.

According to Ethan Jewell, Seoul-based correspondent for NK News, one of the main avenues to explain the spread of the virus on North Korean territory would however be to be sought on the side of China, a country also hard hit by the Covid- 19 for several months. Also according to Vice, "there have been numerous reports of people making illegal trips [...] in an effort to provide essential resources to impoverished and starving North Korean communities".

A strained medical system

According to Vic e, North Korean soldiers could then have found themselves in contact with some of these Chinese smugglers. They would then have gone to a military parade organized in Pyongyang on April 25, transforming the event into a giant cluster. For Hong Min, a researcher at the Korea Institute for National Unification, there is no doubt: “The current Covid epidemic [in North Korea] is closely linked to the April 25 parade”.

On the other hand, faced with the number of cases which continues to increase, the North Korean health system is struggling. "In town, you have a very big general hospital... but if you go to the villages, they hardly have any clinics," Hong Lim explains. The medical system is under strain and the shortage of drugs is evident.”

Due to the few people vaccinated and the lack of available treatments, experts believe that North Korea could introduce draconian containment measures to limit the spread of the virus, like its Chinese neighbor.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



As every spring, with the publication of the reference documents of listed companies, the remuneration of the big bosses arouses indignant reactions. This year, a study by Fintech Scalens, a platform specializing in services for listed companies, showed in particular that the leaders of the CAC 40, the forty best valued companies on the Paris stock exchange, saw their remuneration double in one year. year, reaching an average of 8.7 million euros. Same upward trend in the United States: the 100 main American executives saw their remuneration increase by 31% in 2021 to around 20 million euros per person on average (including +569% for the boss of Apple, Tim Cook, or even +65% for that of Goldman Sachs).

One name in particular caught the attention of the French press: that of Carlos Tavares, the general manager of the automobile group Stellantis (born from the merger between Fiat Chrystler and PSA Peugeot Citroën), supposed to receive 66 million euros in total compensation. in 2021, including a fixed portion of €19 million. This figure, made public during the intervening rounds of the presidential campaign, was deemed "shocking" both by the candidate of the National Rally, Marine Le Pen, and by the candidate president Emmanuel Macron, who also called for a cap on executive compensation at European level.

The case of Carlos Tavares indeed appears all the more controversial since, under the mandate of François Hollande, a law was adopted so that the employer's remuneration is subject to the approval of the shareholders. On April 13, the latter also opposed the payment of 66 million euros at the general meeting of the group. But the vote took place at the new headquarters located in the Netherlands, where this vote only has an advisory function... The CFDT central union representative, thus bitterly regretted the move: was for geographical neutrality, not for financial advantages…”

A decorrelation of performance

During the general assembly of the Stellantis group, the president John Elkann had justified this level of remuneration by explaining that he wanted to "reward the performance" of the manager who carried out the merger between Fiat Chrystler and PSA Peugeot Citroën.

Yet the question of whether to reward success financially, although it has been widely debated in psychology since the seminal work of Edward Deci, is not what is primarily at stake here. What is shocking is the level of this reward. How can we explain it? Is this a relevant practice in terms of management?

66 million euros for Carlos Tavares: the salary of the leader of Stellantis disputed (France 24, April 14, 2022).

In the United States, managers earned on average 254 times more than their employees in 2021, compared to 238 times in 2020. A level close to that observed in France. However, if the absolute level of this difference can legitimately shock, it is especially its evolution during the last decades which constitutes the most surprising phenomenon.

Indeed, this gap was only 1 to 20 in the United States in 1965. This was also the maximum pay gap recommended at the beginning of the 20th century by the famous banker JP Morgan, not well known for his activism. egalitarian. What can explain such inflation? This is certainly not a proportional increase in the talent and responsibilities of the big bosses: whatever the indicator chosen, nothing indicates that the performance of the leaders (and of the companies they lead) has multiplied by 20 since the 1960s.

Consanguinity of boards of directors

In fact, the explosion in the compensation of managers of listed companies is explained by the conjunction of two perverse effects. The first of these effects is the consanguinity of boards of directors and supervisory boards, known in France by the sweet name of "barbichette" , in reference to the nursery rhyme "I hold you, you hold me by the goatee", which becomes: “you are a member of my board, you vote my compensation, I am a member of your board, I vote your compensation”.

To legitimize executive compensation, some argue that there is a "market" for talent, and that compensation, however exuberant it may be, would correspond to the "market price" of skills. However, if such a market exists for the leaders of large groups, it is certainly not a free market and the price there is certainly not an objective measure of value. Indeed, the boards of directors of listed groups are often made up of individuals who are themselves leaders, and who often sit on several other boards.

There is therefore a form of collusion more or less displayed between the managers and those who evaluate their action and decide on their remuneration. Moreover, this situation is not specific to French capitalism (even if collusion between alumni of the same Grandes Ecoles and the same Grandes Corps tends to reinforce it), since it is found, for example, in the United States.

The consanguinity of the boards of directors and supervisory boards, one of the factors which maintains the salaries of the leaders on the rise.

We can thus explain the level of remuneration of the big bosses by the fact that they attribute it to themselves, through their administrators, with whom they share the same interests and the same networks. However, if this phenomenon can make it possible to understand the amount of remuneration, it does not explain their multiplication since the 1960s. Indeed, the endogamy of the instances of power is as old as the world, and nothing indicates that it be worse today than it was yesterday.

“Lake Wobegon effect”

To explain the explosion in executive compensation, we must therefore invoke a second perverse effect, much more formidable because it is largely counter-intuitive. It was from the 1990s that regulations gradually imposed disclosure of the levels of remuneration of the managers of listed companies. In the United States, this took the form of a new rule enacted by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1992. In France, it is the NRE law of May 15, 2001, revised by the financial security law of August 1, 2003 which fixed this framework.

In both cases, the objective was the same: to better inform shareholders about executive compensation, with the underlying assumption that if this compensation became public, it would remain contained. However, paradoxically, it is exactly the opposite that has happened: it is the publication of salaries that has caused their inflation.

Indeed, as soon as the remuneration is public, it becomes a measure of the value of the leaders and therefore an issue. As long as it was secret, it did not make it possible to compare individuals and therefore remained a purely private matter. Having become public, it imposes itself as the standard of their talent. When a listed company appoints a new leader and decides to pay him less than his predecessor, everyone knows it, and we will deduce that he is not as capable as the one he replaces. Similarly, if the leader of a company is paid less than the average for his industry, everyone knows it, and we will deduce that he is not among the most talented.

It is because remuneration is public that all leaders seek to earn more than the average and that all boards of directors are constantly paying them better. Indeed, a director who would publicly doubt the competence of the manager would cause a collapse of the share price. Conversely, to positively influence shareholder value, a board of directors has an interest in giving all the most patent, measurable and most visible signs of the extreme confidence it has in the exceptional talent of the manager: this is what he does when he decides to increase it. Therefore, once public, executive compensation becomes instrumentalized as both a measurement tool and a mechanism of influence.

The phenomenon of instrumentalization of the average is known in the United States as the "Lake Wobegon effect", named after the fictional town of Lake Wobegon, where, as the legend goes, "all women are strong, all men are beautiful and all the children are above average”. If it is impossible for everyone to be better than the average, the fact that everyone seeks to be so causes their inflation.

A simple solution for a recent anomaly

What to remember from all that ? In the light of history, the explosion in the remuneration of the bosses of large companies remains an anomaly, and it is a recent anomaly (the French economist Thomas Piketty condemns “meritocratic extremism” in this regard). From a managerial point of view, the current levels of remuneration are not justified, because for a long time companies have been very well managed without their bosses being so handsomely paid.

Moreover, such pay gaps cause a deep feeling of inequity, at the risk of general demotivation, which is much more detrimental to company performance than a very hypothetical erosion of executive talent. As American billionaire Warren Buffett slyly puts it:

"When a leader with a reputation for excellence meets an industry with a reputation for difficulty, it's usually the industry that retains its reputation."

Consequently, if we want to put an end to this historical anomaly that is the explosion of the salaries of big bosses (or that of movie stars and sports champions), the conclusion that must be drawn is clear: we must make these salaries secret. As soon as they are secret, remuneration will cease to be a measure of the value of individuals, and therefore to be an issue. Of course, nothing says that by becoming confidential, remuneration will go down to more reasonable levels (for that, the law would have to impose it or the shareholders would have to demand it), but at the very least they will have fewer reasons to 'increase.

Remains a major obstacle: it is difficult to see how public opinion, scandalized by the current levels of these remunerations, could accept that we decide to hide them. I invite our most pedagogical readers to solve this thorny problem.

According to Frédéric Fréry

Professor of Strategy, ESCP Business School, CentraleSupélec – University of Paris-Saclay in TheConversation.

Boby Dean for DayNewsWorld



It is the first subject of concern of the French, the one which occupied a major part of the campaign and will remain at the heart of the attention of the president: purchasing power. In this regard, Emmanuel Macron is not beginning his second five-year term with great credit. At the end of March, 74% of French people believed that their purchasing power had deteriorated since his election in 2017… Inflation in France jumped 4.8% over one year in April after 4.5% a month earlier according to the provisional estimate published this Friday morning by INSEE.

Price growth in France continues to be driven by soaring hydrocarbon prices exacerbated by Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Over twelve months, energy prices rose another 26.6%. But the increase is also fueled by an “acceleration in the prices of services, food and manufactured products”, specifies INSEE.

An impact evaluated between 168 euros and 421 euros

France is therefore rediscovering a waltz of labels unprecedented since the beginning of the 1980s and which is likely to last. After the entry into force of trade agreements between producers and large retailers - which are also being renegotiated - food prices soared by 3.8%, against 2.9% in March. Fresh produce soared by 6.6%.

The rise in food prices alone "could reduce household purchasing power by 0.4% to 1.1% this year, i.e. between 168 euros and 421 euros with" an impact three times greater for the 10 % the most modest compared to the 10% most affluent”, calculated the economists of Asterès. But the prices of services also increased, by 2.9%.

“The price shocks are spreading throughout the economy, which does not bode well ,” summarizes Philippe Waechter, director of economic research at Ostrum Asset Management.

Decline in growth

Inflation risks leading to losses of purchasing power even if the executive has multiplied the devices in the form of a “resilience plan” to help French people get through this difficult period. Energy check, then tariff shield on gas and electricity prices.. .

As a result, household consumption is down, and GDP growth is zero in the first quarter of 2022 in France, again according to INSEE. In March, consumption fell by 1.3%, halting French growth in the first quarter, INSEE announced on Friday.

After peaking at 7% in 2021, economic growth is likely to stall in the coming months. Most forecasting institutes have recently downgraded their GDP growth figures for 2022.

“For the next government, the equation will be very complicated. He will have to manage the effects of this inflation on the purchasing power of households”, underlines the economist of Ostrum Asset Management Philippe Waechter. “As no government wants to enter into indexation procedures, there are necessarily losses of purchasing power and therefore inequalities which will increase”, he recalls.

On this point, the rise in fuel prices in recent weeks has accentuated territorial disparities in France. All households living in rural areas and dependent on the car find themselves penalized by the rise in fuel prices. Even if the government has implemented several measures such as the 18-cent discount on fuel prices or the inflation check, these non-targeted devices benefit a large number of households without distinction.

Several recent works by economists have shown that these measures could widen the gap between population categories, while those at the bottom of the scale are the most exposed.

An increased risk of social tensions

The next government will also have the heavy task of curbing strong social tensions if inflation continues in the coming months. Already during the presidential campaign, numerous snail operations and blockades of fuel depots took place throughout the territory. The discontent could grow as economic activity slows down. Macronia.

“Inflation generated political crises throughout the 20th century. Inflation has led to social crises in many countries,” recalls Anne-Sophie Alsif.

Abby Shelcore for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Moscou et Kiev annoncent des avancées dans les discussions. « Nous pouvons dire que les deux parties se sont rapprochées. Elles ont fait des progrès significatifs aujourd’hui. Maintenant, les ministres des Affaires étrangères des deux pays vont se réunir et après, il est prévu une rencontre entre chefs d’Etat », s’est félicité Mevlüt Çavuoglu, le chef de la diplomatie turque dont le pays jouait le rôle de facilitateur dans l’affaire .

La Russie promet en effet un retrait de ses troupes autour de la capitale ukrainienne, en signe de bonne volonté. La Russie a décidé de réduire de manière drastique ses activités militaires autour de Kyiv et Tchernihiv, a déclaré mardi le vice-ministre russe de la Défense à l’issue d’une nouvelle session de pourparlers de paix entre l’Ukraine et la Russie, à Istanbul. L’état-major de l’armée russe devait fournir plus de détails à ce sujet après le retour à Moscou de la délégation de négociateurs. Vendredi, le ministère russe de la Défense avait déjà indiqué que ses forces allaient désormais se concentrer sur une « libération » complète du Donbass, région de l’est de l’Ukraine, précisant qu’il s’agissait d’une des options de départ de leur « opération spéciale », l’autre qui serait donc abandonné étant la conquête de l’ensemble de l’Ukraine. Le Donbass est la région de l’est de l’Ukraine constituée des régions administratives de Louhansk et Donetsk, peuplées en partie de russophones, où Moscou a reconnu l’indépendance des deux républiques séparatistes autoproclamées du même nom juste avant le début de son intervention le 24 février. L’armée russe contrôlerait à l’heure actuelle 93 % du territoire de l’oblast de Louhansk et 54 % du territoire de l’oblast de Donetsk, selon le ministère russe de la Défense. « Les principaux objectifs de la première phase de l’opération ont été globalement atteints », a déclaré dans un discours le général Sergueï Roudskoï, chef d’état-major adjoint.

Alexandre Fomine a présenté cette initiative comme un moyen d’établir la confiance entre les deux camps et d’aller plus loin dans les négociations, alors que l’Ukraine a proposé mardi sa neutralité en échange de garanties de sécurité et de futures discussions sur le statut de la Crimée, annexée par Moscou en 2014.

Selon Vladimir Medinsky, le chef négociateur russe, son pays ne serait pas opposé à une entrée de son voisin dans l’Union européenne....

L’Ukraine demande à l’avenir que des pays – on parle des Etats-Unis, du Royaume-Uni, de la Chine, de la France, de la Turquie, de l’Allemagne, du Canada, de l’Italie, de la Pologne et d’Israël – se portent réellement garants de sa sécurité. En cas d’attaque et après consultation, les capitales concernées s’engageraient à envoyer, au bout de trois jours, des troupes, des armes et à assurer une zone d’exclusion aérienne. Kiev conditionne un tel accord à la tenue d’un référendum sur le sujet. Ce qui implique aussi le retrait total des troupes russes du territoire.

Pour ce qui est de la Crimée, Kiev proposerait un délai de quinze ans pour arriver à s’entendre sur un statut, Volodymyr Zelensky se proposant de négocier en direct avec Vladimir Poutine le sort des régions de Luhansk et Donetsk dans le Donbass.

Une fois ceci approuvé au niveau ministériel, un sommet pourrait être organisé entre Vladimir Poutine et Volodymyr Zelensky.

Alize Marion pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Alors que l'Europe craint de grelotter l'hiver prochain une autre calamité est en train de naître dans les vastes plaines céréalières ukrainiennes. Une crise alimentaire mondiale comme la planète n'en a jamais connue. A New York, devant le Conseil de Sécurité de l'ONU, le secrétaire général de l'organisation, le portugais Antonio Guterres, a poussé récemment un gros « coup de gueule », prédisant « un ouragan de famines et un effondrement du système alimentaire mondial ». Notamment au Maghreb et dans une bonne partie de l'Afrique avec les effets en cascade de déstabilisations sociales et politiques de ces pays, déjà très fragilisés par deux ans de pandémie.

Ukraine le grenier à céréales

La guerre en Ukraine a mis à feu et à sang le grenier céréalier de la planète. « Face aux sanctions occidentales après l'annexion de la Crimée, en 2014, Poutine a décidé d'investir massivement pour tendre vers l'indépendance alimentaire, en particulier dans les cultures céréalières, raconte Sébastien Abis, chercheur à l'Iris et directeur du Club Demeter. Quant à l'Ukraine, le virage a été pris à la fin des années 90, avec des volumes d'exportations de produits agricoles qui ont été multipliés par six en vingt ans ». Résultat, un tiers du blé tendre (servant notamment à la fabrication du pain) exporté sur la planète provient de ces deux pays, qui sont également incontournables sur les marchés du maïs, de l'orge, du tournesol ou encore du colza.

Mais depuis l'entrée en guerre, la donne risque de changer : Le ministre de l'Agriculture ukrainien estime que la production agricole locale sera a minima divisée par deux cette année.Les semis de printemps (colza, maïs, et tournesol) et les récoltes risquent d'être entravés vu le nombre d'hommes partis au front pour défendre leur pays .

« La révolution de la famine »

L’invasion russe a provoqué une onde de choc dans le monde émergent : les prix ont flambé à des niveaux qu’ils n’avaient plus atteints de­puis des décennies et les impor­tations de matières premières sont à la peine, ce qui engendre des pénuries (en particulier dans les pays les plus défavo­risés qui avaient déjà du mal à se remettre de la pandémie). Dans certaines régions du Ken­ya, le prix du pain a augmenté de 40 %. En Indonésie, le gou­vernement a plafonné ceux de l’huile. Le Yémen dépend de l’Ukraine et de la Russie pour plus de 40 % de ses importations de blé.

En Turquie, l’explosion du prix de l’huile de tournesol a poussé les clients à se ruer dans les magasins pour en stocker autant que possible. En Irak, des manifestations ont réuni des citoyens mécontents de la hausse des prix de l’alimentation qui ont baptisé leur mouvement « la révolution de la famine ».

Une cinquantaine de pays, essentiellement défavorisés, achètent au moins 30 % de leur blé à la Russie et à l’Ukraine. Selon l’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO), à elles deux, elles fournissent un tiers des exportations mondiales de céréales et 52 % du marché de l’huile de tournesol. « Si le conflit se poursuit, les répercussions seront vraisemblablement plus importantes que la crise du coronavirus, estime Indermit Gill, vice-président de la Banque mondiale en charge de la politique économique. »

Le Moyen-Orient et l’Afrique du Nord sont particulièrement dépendants des importations russes et ukrainiennes de blé. L’Egypte, premier importateur au monde, achète près de 70 % de sa consommation à ces deux pays. Idem pour le Liban. Pour la Turquie, c’est plus de 80 %. En 2011, l’envolée du prix du pain a joué un rôle dans le déclenchement du Printemps arabe. Le gouvernement égyptien a déclaré que la crise ukrainienne lui coûterait environ un milliard de dollars en subvention du pain et qu’il se mettait en quête de nouveaux fournisseurs. Il a également introduit un contrôle des prix du pain non subventionné pour enrayer la flambée des tarifs; Une envolée des prix qui accroît le risque d’un soulèvement populaire en Egypte, des années d’austérité ayant déjà fortement érodé le pouvoir d’achat de la population. Le Liban, lui, n’a plus qu’un mois de stock de blé, a indiqué Amin Salam, son ministre de l’Economie. En raison de la crise économique qui frappe le pays, un quart des ménages ne sont pas certains de pouvoir manger à leur faim. « Nous nous sommes rapprochés des pays amis pour voir comment trouver du blé à des conditions raisonnables », a-t-il déclaré. 

En 2008, l’explosion des prix de l’alimentation avait provoqué des émeutes dans 48 pays.

Explosion du prix du pétrole et du gaz

Goldman Sachs affirme que l’attaque russe contre l’Ukraine a provoqué la plus forte déflagration sur le marché mondial des céréales depuis la crise soviétique de 1973 et pourrait avoir, sur les marchés pétroliers, un impact comparable à l’invasion du Koweït par l’Irak en 1990. La banque estime que le baril de pétrole devrait osciller autour de 130 dollars en moyenne d’ici à la fin de l’année, soit près du double de son cours moyen de 2021, à 71 dollars. Deuxième exportateur mondial de brut après l’Arabie saoudite, la Russie représente 12 % de l’offre mondiale, selon l’Agence internationale de l’énergie (AIE). C’est aussi le premier exportateur mondial de gaz naturel et le plus gros producteur d’engrais. Si les prix des engrais augmentent, les agriculteurs en utiliseront moins, donc le rendement des récoltes va baisser et les prix vont augmenter, et ce sont les pays qui ont le moins de moyens qui seront les plus touchés. Certaines régions du monde, notamment en Afrique, étaient confrontées au problème de l’inflation avant même le déclenchement du conflit en Ukraine.

Les économies qui sont très dépendantes des importations d’énergie sont particulièrement menacées, estime S& P, qui évoque notamment l’Inde, la Thaïlande, la Turquie, le Chili et les Philippines. L’Inde importe par exemple près de 85 % du pétrole qu’elle consomme, tandis que la Thaïlande affiche la facture énergétique la plus élevée des grands pays émergents (6 % du PIB). Selon S& P, le choc sur les prix pourrait amputer les prévisions de croissance de nombreux pays en développement. Au Pakistan, où l’inflation est endémique, le gouvernement a annoncé fin février le déblocage de 1,5 milliard de dollars de subventions pour tenter d’empêcher le prix du carburant d’augmenter en raison de la crise ukrainienne. Or le Ramadan, période qui entraîne souvent un regain d’inflation, commencera d’ici peu. Devant les critiques qui accusent le gouvernement d’être incapable d’enrayer la hausse des prix, les partis d’opposition tentent de renverser le Premier ministre, Imran Khan.

Le programme alimentaire d'urgence en difficulté

L’augmentation des coûts pèse aussi sur la capacité du Programme alimentaire mondial (PAM) à aider les populations menacées par la famine, dont plus de trois millions de personnes en Ukraine. En effet la guerre a fait augmenter de 29 millions de dollars par mois une facture mensuelle de denrées et de carburant qui a déjà bondi de 44 % depuis 2019, portant le surcoût annuel à 852 millions de dollars. Dans ce contexte d’augmentation des prix et de budget limité, le PAM a dû réduire les rations qu’il distribue en Afrique de l’Est et au Moyen-Orient, notamment aux réfugiés. Confrontée à la sécheresse, aux violences et aux difficultés politiques, la Somalie frôlait la famine avant même que Moscou ne s’en prenne à Kiev. « Les pays comme la Somalie sont extrêmement vulnérables parce qu’ils sont touchés par des conflits armés prolongés et des chocs climatiques de plus en plus forts, donc la moindre fluctuation des prix alimentaires peut avoir un impact colossal, déplore Alyona Synenko, porte-parole pour l’Afrique du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR). Les gens ne vont plus y arriver. »

Famine et instabilité vont souvent de pair...

Alyson Braxton pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.




Les événements se sont précipités au Kazakhstan mercredi 5 janvier 2022. Internet et les téléphones portables étaient bloqués mercredi au Kazakhstan . Le pays a décrété l’état d’urgence sur tout son territoire, en proie à des manifestations violentes depuis plusieurs jours et où, malgré l'autoritarisme du régime de cette ex-république soviétique d’Asie centrale, la foule a pris d’assaut les bâtiments gouvernementaux.

Des « dizaines » de manifestants tués

Statues de Noursoultan Nazarbaïev, personnage central du pays, déboulonnées, bâtiments officiels mis à sac, sièges du parti au pouvoir dévastés, voitures de polices incendiées… La colère générée par l’augmentation brutale du prix des carburants, en particulier du gaz de pétrole liquéfié (GPL), a tourné à l’émeute et au chaos au Kazakhstan, faisant voler en éclats l’image de stabilité immuable de cette ex-République soviétique bâtie depuis son indépendance, il y a trente ans.

Des « dizaines » de manifestants ont été tués dans la nuit de mercredi 5 au jeudi 6 janvier dans la ville d’Almaty, la capitale économique du pays, située dans le Sud-Est et devenue en quelques heures l’épicentre des émeutes. « La nuit dernière, les forces extrémistes ont tenté de prendre d’assaut les bâtiments administratifs, le département de la police de la ville d’Almaty, ainsi que les départements locaux et les commissariats de police. Des dizaines d’assaillants ont été éliminés », a annoncé,ce matin, le porte-parole de la police, Saltanat Azirbek, cité par les agences russes Interfax-Kazakhstan, TASS et RIA Novosti.

Le ministère de l’intérieur kazakh a également avancé le nombre de douze morts dans les rangs des forces de sécurité et de trois cent cinquante-trois blessés. D’autres villes de ce pays d’Asie centrale d’à peine plus de 18 millions d’habitants, grand comme cinq fois la France, ont été également gagnées par la contestation dont les revendications se sont rapidement muées en faveur d’un changement de régime.

 A 230 kilomètres au nord d’Almaty, à Taldykorgan, l’Akimat, le siège de l’administration était ainsi en proie aux flammes. « Plus de mille personnes ont été blessées à la suite des émeutes dans différentes régions du Kazakhstan, près de quatre cents d’entre elles ont été hospitalisées et soixante-deux sont en soins intensifs », a précisé un peu plus tard le vice-ministre de la santé, Ajar Guiniat, à l’antenne de la chaîne Khabar-24.

Le président kazakh, Kassym-Jomart Tokaïev, avait auparavant dénoncé, dans une allocution télévisée, « des attaques massives contre les forces de l’ordre » affirmant que celles-ci avaient fait dans leurs rangs des morts et des blessés. « Des groupes d’éléments criminels battent nos soldats, les humilient, les traînant nus dans les rues, agressent les femmes, pillent les magasins », a-t-il décrit.

Dans un effort pour juguler la crise, le président Tokaïev avait déjà limogé le gouvernement et décrété l’état d’urgence dans plusieurs régions dont Almaty et la capitale, Nur-Sultan, récemment rebaptisée ainsi en l’honneur de l’ancien président Noursoultan Nazarbaïev. Un couvre-feu est en vigueur de 23h à 7h.

Dans la nuit de mercredi à jeudi, Moscou et ses alliés de l'Organisation du traité de sécurité collective (OTSC) ont annoncé jeudi l'envoi d'une « force collective de maintien de la paix », comme l'a demandé cette ex-république soviétique.

Ce 5 janvier 2022 un jour historique : la page Nazarbaïev définitivement tournée.

Dans ce contexte, le président Tokaïev a annoncé qu'il dirigerait désormais le Conseil de sécurité, qui était depuis près de trois ans le vrai centre du pouvoir au Kazakhstan. Cela signifierait que l'ancien président Noursoultan Nazarbaïev, 81 ans, n'est plus au pouvoir.

En effet, lorsqu'en mars 2019, Noursoultan Nazarbaïev a décidé d'abandonner le fauteuil de chef de l'État, qu'il occupait depuis 1991, soit depuis 28 ans, il a gardé en réalité l'essentiel des attributs présidentiels en tant que chef du Conseil de sécurité. Ainsi en va-t-il dans les régimes autoritaires, où l'autocrate ne peut quasi jamais quitter le pouvoir jusqu'à sa mort. Noursoultan Nazarbaïev, pensait rester ainsi dans l’ombre du pouvoir depuis la fin de sa présidence en 2019 en gardant un statut sur-mesure de « Leader de la nation » et en installant un successeur à sa main.

Si ce 5 janvier 2022 pourrait bien entrer dans l'histoire du Kazakhstan, ce n'est donc pas seulement parce que le pays semble quasi hors de contrôle des autorités ce mercredi soir. C'est aussi peut-être qu’en cette folle journée, la page Nazarbaïev s’est définitivement tournée.

Désormais, c'est Kassym-Jomart Tokaïev qui annonce non seulement qu'il dirige seul le Conseil de sécurité, mais aussi qu'il va apporter des réponses « fermes » aux troubles en cours, mettant en avant le sacrifice des forces de l'ordre.

Mercredi après-midi, celui qui s'était fait officiellement nommer « Elbassy » (chef de la nation), a peut-être définitivement abandonné les rênes du pays, sous la pression de la rue qui depuis plusieurs jours criait « Shal, ket ! » (« Vieil homme, va-t-en ! »).

Le président Tokaïev demande l'aide de Moscou et de ses alliés

Le président Tokaïev a déclaré  mercredi soir qu'il faisait appel à une alliance de sécurité soutenue par Moscou, pour qu'elle aide à réprimer les manifestations, dirigées selon lui par des « gangs terroristes ». « Aujourd'hui, j'ai appelé les chefs d'États de l'Organisation du traité de sécurité collective (OTSC) à aider le Kazakhstan à surmonter cette menace terroriste », a-t-il déclaré à la télévision d'État, estimant que les protestataires avaient « reçu une formation approfondie à l'étranger ».

La réponse est venue plus tard dans la soirée. Le président de l'OTSC, le Premier ministre arménien Nikol Pachinian, a indiqué sur Facebook que l'alliance avait décidé d'envoyer une « force collective de maintien de la paix » dans le pays, pour « une durée de temps limitée afin de stabiliser et normaliser la situation », provoquée par « une ingérence extérieure » selon lui.

Dans une brève allocution en langue russe diffusée mercredi  par la télévision d’Etat, le président Kassym-Jomart Tokaïev, 68 ans, a dénoncé tout à la fois des « conspirateurs motivés par le gain » et « des hooligans très bien organisés » ayant « scrupuleusement planifié leurs actions ». Les faits suggèrent au contraire que c’est la libéralisation brutale par le gouvernement des prix du carburant, et en particulier du GPL, qui a déclenché, à la base, le mouvement de colère. Les foyers du mécontentement font partie des régions où le GPL, dont le prix vient de doubler, est le carburant le plus utilisé.

Le dialogue aura donc fait long feu puisque, d’une part, le régime du président a choisi l’épreuve de force en lançant ses forces armées à la reconquête des villes et quartiers en proie aux manifestations et aux émeutes. Et que, d’autre part, il a demandé l’assistance de la Russie voisine et de ses alliés de l’Organisation du traité de sécurité collective (OTSC).

L’intervention de l’OTSC, un développement critique.

« Une force collective de maintien de la paix de l’Organisation du traité de sécurité collective (OTSC) a été envoyée au Kazakhstan pour une période limitée afin de stabiliser et de normaliser la situation »​, a indiqué, ce jeudi matin, cette alliance militaire dans un communiqué diffusé sur Telegram par la porte-parole de la diplomatie russe, Maria Zakharova.

Comprenant des troupes russes, et probablement des contingents bélarusses, arméniens, tadjikes et kirghizes, leur mission sera de « protéger les installations étatiques et militaires » ​et « d’aider les forces de l’ordre kazakhes à stabiliser la situation et rétablir l’état de droit »

Une intervention militaire non sans risque

Effectivement, le suivi du trafic aérien montre des vols d’Antonov et d’Iliouchine russes en direction du Kazakhstan. Ces appareils appartiennent bien à l’armée de l’air russe. Ils auraient transporté des parachutistes qui ont été déployés à Almaty.

On ignore encore quel sera l’apport des autres pays de l’OTSC (Kazakhstan, Kirghizistan, Arménie, Russie, Tadjikistan, Biélorussie). Mais ces pays ne disposent pas des mêmes moyens d’intervention militaires que la Russie. Toutefois, l’Arménie, qui assure actuellement la présidence de l’OTSC, a confirmé ce matin sa participation à cette opération de stabilisation. « Pour les Russes, il s’agit de démontrer qu’ils n’agissent pas seuls »​, explique Marie Dumoulin, directrice de programme à l’European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR). « Cette intervention des Russes, et de leurs alliés, n’est pas sans risques car elle pourrait perturber les équilibres ethniques au Kazakhstan ».

Les Etats-Unis appellent à la « retenue »

Le gouvernement américain appelle les autorités du Kazakhstan à la « retenue » et souhaite que les manifestations s’y déroulent « de manière pacifique », a dit mercredi la porte-parole de la Maison Blanche Jen Psaki, alors que le pays d’Asie centrale vient de décréter l’état d’urgence.

Jen Psaki a aussi critiqué les « folles allégations de la Russie » sur une responsabilité supposée des Etats-Unis dans les émeutes qui secouent le Kazakhstan. « C’est absolument faux » et cela relève « de la stratégie de désinformation russe », a-t-elle asséné.

Un mouvement de colère après la hausse du prix du gaz

Le président du Kazakhstan promet donc désormais une réponse « ferme » aux manifestations qui secouent l'ex-république soviétique d'Asie centrale qu'il administre. Le mouvement de colère a débuté dimanche après une hausse des prix du gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL), dans la ville de Janaozen, dans l’ouest du pays, avant de s’étendre à la grande ville régionale d’Aktau, sur les bords de la mer Caspienne, puis à Almaty. Cette hausse est perçue par la population comme injuste au vu des richesses du pays.

Malgré ses énormes richesses en hydrocarbures et en minerais, l'économie du Kazakhstan souffre des conséquences de la pandémie. Le Khazakstan, première économie d’Asie centrale habituée par le passé à des taux de croissance à deux chiffres, souffre en effet de la baisse des prix du pétrole et de la crise économique en Russie, qui a mené à la dévaluation du tenge kazakh et à une forte inflation.

Le Kazakhstan, le plus grand des cinq pays ex-soviétiques d’Asie centrale, qui comprend une importante minorité considérée comme ethniquement russe, est d’une importance économique et géopolitique cruciale pour la Russie. Moscou avait appelé en vain  5 janvier 2022 à résoudre la crise par le dialogue « et non par des émeutes de rues et la violation des lois ».

Il était impossible ce jeudi 6 janvier 2022 d’avoir une vision complète de la situation dans le pays, journalistes et témoins ne pouvant plus être joints par Internet ou par téléphone. Mais en dépit de la coupure générale d’Internet et des communications mobiles, et de l’instauration de l’état d’urgence sur tout le territoire, de nombreuses images de chaos et de forces de l’ordre en déroute ont circulé sur les réseaux sociaux. Les unes montrent des policiers et des militaires fraternisant avec les manifestants. D’autres, des scènes de grande violence.

Le groupe spécialisé dans la surveillance du web NetBlocks a fait état sur Twitter d’une « coupure d’internet à l’échelle nationale, (…) susceptible de limiter sévèrement la couverture des manifestations antigouvernementales qui s’intensifient ».

Alize Marion pour DayNewsWorld


It is proving difficult to establish new economic forecasts at a time when Omicron, a new variant of Covid-19, risks calling everything into question. “The strong rebound we have seen is stalling and supply disruptions, rising inflation and the continuing impact of the pandemic are clouding the horizon. The risks and uncertainties are important - as shown by the appearance of the Omicron variant - aggravating the imbalances and threatening the recovery ”, thus testifies the chief economist of the OECD in a press release

A slowdown in the economic recovery

After a peak expected in the last quarter of 2021, the global economic recovery will slow down. According to forecasts by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published on Wednesday, December 1, growth in global gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to drop from 5.6% in 2021 to 4.5% in 2022, then to 3.25% in 2023. "After a rebound of 5.6% in 2021, world growth should progress at a sustained rate of 4.5% in 2022, to moderate to 3.2% in 2023", according to Laurence Boone Chief Economist of the OECD. The global economy is not expected to catch up before 2023 to its pre-Covid-19 pandemic level, with a much faster recovery in advanced economies than in emerging and poor countries. Omicron, however, threatens to render this prognosis obsolete.

"We are concerned that the new variant, the Omicron strain, adds more uncertainty to that already in operation, which could pose a threat to the recovery," commented Laurence Boone at her press conference .

The uncertainty of variants

Even before the appearance of this new variant, the Organization's team of economists also pointed out the risk that the speed of vaccine deployment and the effectiveness of the latter were not sufficient to stop the transmission of worrying variants of the virus. Covid-19. Moreover, the CEO of Moderna fears a "significant drop" in the effectiveness of vaccines for the Omicron variant. This would require new vaccines, repeated campaigns to administer booster doses, not to mention possible stricter containment measures as is currently the case in a number of European countries.

Inflationary peak in 2022

In this case, further restrictions on mobility and port closures could hamper global trade. These closures, as in China for example, would reduce the availability of goods along supply chains and lengthen delivery times. "These new supply disruptions could also create additional upward pressure on certain prices," said economists.

The organization expects inflation to peak in most industrialized and emerging countries by the first quarter of next year.

Recovery conditional on global vaccination

Laurence Boone is also worried about the risk that low vaccination in some countries will end up promoting the reproduction of more deadly strains of the virus there: 147 doses were administered on average per 100 inhabitants in rich countries, against 8 in poor countries,

"The recovery will remain precarious" as long as the vaccines are not distributed all over the world. However, for Laurence Boone, vaccinating the world population would cost 50 billion dollars. This is a very small amount compared to the 10 trillion dollars of the support plans put in place by the G20 countries.

Kelly Donaldson for DayNewsWorld


The're journalists Gerard Davet and Fabrice Lhomme publish the traitor and nothingness (Editions Fayard), a critical assessment of the five-year Macron.

“After several years of investigation, this title, Le traître et le nant , was established. These are the two essential aspects of what Macron and Macronism are.

His conquest of power was made by betrayals, which then continued at the Élysée.

But also because there is nothingness of the Republic on the Move and the political situation with the candidacy of a far-right polemicist and traditional political parties totally erased, ”said Fabrice Lhomme questioned on RMC. The observation is made and without appeal.

Fabrice Lhomme is a journalist for the daily Le Monde and with his friend Gérard Davet, this is not his first master stroke. After their book Sarko Kill Me in 2011, A president shouldn't say that in 2016- which had contributed to the non-candidacy of François Hollande to his own succession in 2017- the journalists publish this Wednesday, October 13, 2021 a portrait of the current President Macron with the evocative title The traitor and nothingness .

This is a new survey that they are devoting, this time, to the accession to power of Emmanuel Macron and his five-year term and it is not sad.

Moreover, this book sparked a wave of panic at the Elysee Palace: Emmanuel Macron's close guard was looking for the manuscript, giving cold sweats to the President's advisers who wanted to prevent its publication. But in vain.

If Emmanuel Macron and his relatives did not answer the questions of journalists from Le Monde, the book leaves a lot of room for the disappointed with macronism.

The two investigators have indeed met more than 110 leading people for this investigation where we discover confidences, anecdotes, confessions. Witnesses who also entrust documents to investigators.

The betrayals of Emmanuel Macron

The first confidences are those of François Hollande who, in mid-2016, admits to being politically too weak to fire Emmanuel Macron. For the former socialist president Macron will also be betrayed, as he betrayed himself, certainly thinking of Edouard Philippe who had just created his own Horizons party ... Didn't Edouard Philippe say that he There may be dual membership of Horizons and another party. This is exactly what Macron told Hollande in 2016. For Alain Minc, one of Macron's very close advisers, “Edouard Philippe is much less intelligent than the president, but also much more moral, which explains why 'he did not betray him,' says Gérard Davet.

Manuel Valls, Stéphane Le Foll, Gaspard Gantzer (former press adviser to François Hollande), Olivier Faure (at the time deputy and spokesperson for the PS), come back in detail on the months preceding what the authors call the " treason ”of November 16, 2016: the official declaration of candidacy of Emmanuel Macron for the presidential election. The transformation of the Minister of the Economy into a candidate for the presidency of the Republic was achieved through the unsaid and deceit, write the two journalists unreservedly.

The former members of the government and socialist allies recount the conversations, numerous, with Emmanuel Macron, on his distancing from the line of François Hollande (his criticisms of the policies of the government), on the movement which he launched on his side, In Marche, and that he presents as a kind of laboratory of ideas which will support, whatever happens, a candidacy of François Hollande, on the persistent rumors that he is about to emancipate himself, even to run for president Trahi by his minister, but also by all those who admit to having been seduced by Emmanuel Macron, among the Socialists in particular. Christophe Castaner, one of the first macronists, put it bluntly, in 2016 “we have only one objective, it is the prevention of Hollande. "..

Emmanuel Macron is not close to betrayal, according to the investigation. That of the Modem in particular. The two journalists return to the relations between Richard Ferrand and François Bayrou. If the latter are now calling for the creation of a common house, their relations have started under bad auspices.

“A verbal agreement had been concluded between the République en Marche and the MoDem to reserve 144 constituencies for them. At the last moment, there was an arbitration between Ferrand and Macron and the Modem finally obtained 16. When Bayrou learned that, he almost came to blows with Ferrand, the day of Macron's inauguration. (...). To compensate him, the macronists then offered him 4 million euros. A deputy brings 40,000 euros per year to his party so they have multiplied this amount by 100 ”, explains Fabrice Lhomme.

"Corruption pact"

A book in which the authors also return to the financing of the 2017 campaign. Asked the deputy The Republicans Olivier Marleix accuses the former Minister of the Economy of having set up "a corruption pact". We also discover the host Stéphane Bern mad about the king who renames certain ministers to amuse the President, such as “Amélie de Mon thing” for Amélie de Montchalin. Philippe de Villiers, former president of the General Council of Vendée and one of the representatives of the identity right, also details to Davet and Lhomme his vision of his relationship with the one who is still only a seductive minister.

During a dinner at the Rotonde restaurant the viscount then explains attending a charming number: Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron would dream of visiting the Puy du Fou. De Villiers ensures not to be fooled and thus analyzes the intentions of the minister: It is all profit for Macron, because after having paid homage to Joan of Arc a few weeks before, with the Puy du Fou, he sends a message to the right conservative, sovereignist, inexpensively. The creator of Puy du Fou, Philippe de Villiers also reveals that Emmanuel Macron tried to buy the silence of his brother, the head of the Armies, Pierre de Villiers. Among the 110 people investigated, also appears, Bernard Tapie who had advised the President of the Republic in the middle of the crisis of the “yellow vests”, reported RMC.

The politics of nothingness

Jacques Attali, who had discovered the young Macron, takes a severe look at the five-year term. “He told us that someone who calls himself neither right nor left is actually right. (...) He has just said that Macron is the politics of emptiness. And that is the whole problem. From this policy made of sculls and zigzags, we find ourselves in nothingness. It was built with a doodle policy. (...) It allows him not to be a target: a blow to the left, a blow to the right, a blow to the center. It is the permanent gaudille ”, regrets Gérard Davet.

The hard record of the faithful Pierre Person

Pierre Person is however one of the faithful from the start. He founded with others (including Sacha Houlié, who became a member of Parliament) in 2015 the Jeunes avec Macron, even before the creation of En Marche. He then took part in the presidential and legislative campaigns as a political advisor, then a member of the party's executive committee. In short, he is a centerpiece of the macronie, until September 2020: the number 2 of LREM and deputy for Paris leaves the party leadership. He deplores that the movement no longer produces new ideas, and that the party abandons the marchers. Faced with Davet and Lhomme, he wants to be even harder; "We arrive at the Assembly, says Person, we were absolutely arrogant, we considered that the Assembly was a recording chamber", he admits in particular,thus giving reason to the criticisms of the various oppositions throughout the mandate.

* And add:

“Because I think there is a reflex of over-loyalty towards the president (...) To think, in certain respects, can be considered as being disloyal. ". Impossible to create an ideology with a formation made up of people coming from different currents of left and right. Even less when the instruction is to blindly support the president's line. A party, according to Pierre Person must "erect sensitivities which in fact make it possible to confront each other and to draw a common line", "but that was never a will" on the part of the majority party. A real problem within a year of a presidential election.

"We will arrive in 2022 and ideologically, I think we are naked," he concedes.

“There is a dull discontent that is there; but since there is no political outlet ... we are in nothingness. ", Slap, free speech, François Hollande." Betrayal gave birth to nothingness.

Abby Shelcore for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Fin d' une saga politico-judiciaire qui aura duré trois ans: la directrice financière du géant chinois des télécoms Huawei, Meng Wanzhou, a pu quitter le Canada pour la Chine à la faveur d'un accord avec les Etats-Unis, vendredi 24 septembre 2021.

La fille du patron de Huawei avait été arrêtée le 1er décembre 2018 à l'aéroport de Vancouver à la demande de Washington, qui voulait la juger pour fraude bancaire.

Peu après, deux Canadiens, l'ex-diplomate Michael Kovrig et l'homme d'affaires Michael Spavor, avaient été arrêtés en Chine pour espionnage. Cette interpellation avait provoqué une crise diplomatique sans précédent entre Ottawa et Pékin. Leur détention avait été perçue par le Canada comme une mesure de représailles.

Les deux hommes ont embarqué vendredi à bord d'un avion pour rentrer « à la maison », à annoncé le Premier ministre canadien, Justin Trudeau. Il n'a pas donné de détails sur les circonstances de leur libération, car « c'est une opération actuellement en cours ».

Les poursuites reportées jusqu'à fin 2022

Le départ de Meng Wanzhou pour la Chine est la concrétisation d'un accord entre le ministère de la Justice et le mastodonte chinois des télécoms, rendu public vendredi par un tribunal de New York. Lors d’une audience, le représentant du ministère de la Justice David Kessler avait proposé de « reporter » jusqu’au 1er décembre 2022 les « poursuites » engagées depuis fin 2018 contre Meng Wanzhou, notamment pour « complot » en vue de commettre une « fraude bancaire ».

L’accord, entériné et qualifié de « sérieux » par le tribunal fédéral de Brooklyn en début d’après-midi, prévoyait aussi que Washington recommande à Ottawa de faire « libérer » Mme Meng et abandonne de facto toute demande d’extradition. S'il n'est pas contesté ou rompu d'ici le 1er décembre 2022, les poursuites seront définitivement abandonnées, selon Washington.

Accusation de fraude bancaire...

La justice américaine accusait la numéro 2 de Huawei d'avoir menti à un cadre de la banque HSBC lors d'une rencontre à Hong Kong en 2013, à propos des liens entre le groupe chinois et une filiale nommée Skycom qui vendait des équipements à l'Iran, exposant l'établissement à des sanctions américaines. Selon les termes de l'accord, Meng Wanzhou a reconnu qu'elle avait fait à l'époque « de fausses déclarations » et « dissimulé la vérité » au cadre de HSBC sur les « activités de Huawei en Iran », pays soumis à des sanctions américaines et internationales.

Principale exigence, ne pas contester le récit des faits qui raconte sur quatre pages comment Huawei, dont Meng Wanzhou était directrice financière, contrôlait de fait une filiale télécom en Iran baptisée Skycom et s’est arrangé pour lui faire obtenir du matériel interdit, en dépit des embargos américains.

Comme toujours, c’est l’usage du dollar (dans les transactions réalisées par HSBC, maintenu dans l’ignorance des faits), qui permet à la justice américaine d’agir de manière supranationale chez des parties tierces.

Avec l’annonce des libérations, ce sont trois années de bataille judiciaire et de fortes tensions économiques et politiques entre Pékin, Washington et Ottawa qui devraient s’apaiser.

Le gouvernement chinois estime depuis 2018 que l'administration américaine - à l’époque du président d’alors Donald Trump - cherchait avant tout à affaiblir Huawei, entreprise chinoise de pointe et leader mondial des équipements et réseaux 5G, sans équivalent côté américain.Début 2020, Huawei était le premier fabricant mondial de téléphones intelligents avant d’être placé sur la liste noire de l’ancienne administration Trump. Il ne figure plus depuis parmi les cinq premiers mondiaux du secteur.

« Meng Wanzhou est le visage de cette nouvelle compétition féroce entre la Chine » et les États-Unis qui « menace de remettre en question la position hégémonique mondiale des Américains » et « l’ordre mondial libéral » qu’ils dirigent depuis la Guerre froide, observe Roromme Chantal, professeur à l’École des hautes études publiques (HEP) de Moncton et spécialiste de la Chine.

« La forme que prend cette compétition féroce est principalement une rivalité technologique », explique-t-il, évoquant une « Guerre froide 2.0 ».

Larry Ricky pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



La rentrée dans les établissements du secondaire s'est faite sans les écolières, samedi 18 septembre 2021.Une rentrée 100% masculine en Afghanistan : seuls les collégiens et lycéens ont été autorisés à reprendre le chemin de l'école dans le pays, samedi 18 septembre 2021.

Dix jours après la réouverture des universités privées du pays, le ministère de l'Education afghan a annoncé vendredi que « tous les professeurs hommes et les élèves » du secondaire allaient retrouver leur établissement, sans faire aucune mention des enseignantes ou des collégiennes et lycéennes.

Ce flou risque d'alimenter un peu plus encore l'inquiétude d'une partie de la population afghane et de la communauté internationale qui redoutent de voir se reproduire le même scénario que lors du premier passage au pouvoir des fondamentalistes, entre 1996 et 2001.

En l'espace de vingt ans, le nombre d'écoles a triplé et le nombre d'enfants scolarisés est passé de 1 million à 9,5 millions, selon l'agence onusienne.

L'Unicef déplore la décision des talibans

« L'Unicef se félicite de la réouverture des écoles secondaires en Afghanistan, mais souligne que les filles ne doivent pas être laissées de côté », a réagi vendredi la directrice exécutive de l'agence onusienne, Henrietta Fore. « Il est essentiel que toutes, y compris les plus âgées, puissent reprendre leur éducation sans plus de retard, et que les enseignantes puissent elles aussi continuer à enseigner », a insisté l'Unicef dans un communiqué, rappelant les « progrès considérables dans le pays au cours des deux dernières décennies ».

Les femmes conservent certes le droit d'étudier à l'université, mais elles devront pour cela porter une abaya ainsi qu'un hijab et les cours se feront dans la mesure du possible en non-mixité. Aucune femme ne figure par ailleurs au sein du nouvel exécutif provisoire, présenté début septembre.

Depuis leur retour au pouvoir, les talibans ont tenté de rassurer la communauté internationale en assurant entre autres que les droits des femmes seraient respectés. Mais ces affirmations ont été fragilisées ces dernières semaines par plusieurs décisions prises par le nouvel exécutif afghan.Aucune femme ne figure par ailleurs au sein du nouvel exécutif provisoire présenté début septembre.

Et pas plus tard hier, vendredi 17 septembre2021, le ministère des Affaires féminines s'est vu remplacé par celui de la Promotion de la vertu et de la Prévention du vice, craint pour son fondamentalisme durant le premier épisode taliban.

Jaimie Potts pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.




Agnès Buzyn, l’ex-ministre de la santé de mai 2017 à février 2020, est convoquée, vendredi 10 septembre 2021, par les juges de la Cour de justice de la République. Elle risque une mise en examen pour « mise en danger de la vie d’autrui » dans le cadre de la gestion gouvernementale de la crise sanitaire.

Il s'agit d'un interrogatoire de première comparution à l'issue duquel Agnès Buzyn peut être mise en examen ou ressortir sous le statut plus favorable de témoin assisté, si elle parvient à convaincre les juges qu'il n'existe pas suffisamment d'indices graves ou concordants pouvant être retenus contre elle.

Agnès Buzyn avait démissionné de son poste de ministre de la Santé en février 2020 au tout début de l'épidémie de Covid-19, remplacée par Olivier Véran.

L’ex-ministre avait créé un tollé en qualifiant les élections municipales de « mascarade » et en déclarant qu’elle savait « que la vague du tsunami était devant nous » au moment de son départ du ministère, à la mi-février. Pourtant, en janvier, elle avait déclaré publiquement :

« Les risques de propagation du coronavirus dans la population sont très faibles », reconnaissant que cette analyse pouvait évoluer.

Devant la commission d’enquête de l’Assemblée nationale sur la gestion de la crise sanitaire, Agnès Buzyn avait indiqué fin juin 2020 avoir alerté l’Élysée et Matignon dès janvier de la même année sur le danger potentiel du coronavirus.

Cette convocation à la CJR intervient dans le cadre de l'enquête menée depuis juillet 2020 sur la manière dont le gouvernement a géré la pandémie.Outre Agnès Buzyn, l'instruction menée par la CJR vise également l'ancien Premier ministre Edouard Philippe ainsi qu'Olivier Véran. Des perquisitions avaient d'ailleurs été menées le 15 octobre dernier chez Edouard Philippe, Agnès Buzyn, Olivier Véran et chez le directeur général de la Santé Jérôme Salomon.

14 500 plaintes contre le gouvernement

L’enquête avait été ouverte en juillet 2020 après que la commission des requêtes de la CJR, composée de hauts magistrats, avait estimé que neuf plaintes visant l’exécutif étaient recevables. Depuis, d’autres plaintes ont été jugées recevables et jointes à l’enquête. Mercredi, le procureur général près la Cour de cassation François Molins, qui représente l’accusation à la CJR, a déclaré que « 14 500 plaintes » sur la gestion de la pandémie étaient arrivées à la CJR.

La CJR est la seule juridiction habilitée à poursuivre et juger les Premiers ministres, ministres et secrétaires d'Etat pour les crimes et délits commis « dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions ».

Andrew Preston pour DayNewsWorld



In doing so :

The members of the G7 notably agreed on the principle of a “world minimum tax on companies” for large companies, at the rate set at a minimum of 15%.

The latter is certainly less important than the 21% proposed by the White House a few weeks ago, but it should help to establish a more level playing field for British companies by fighting against tax havens.

"We have reached an agreement on the international taxation of the 21st century", greeted Bruno Le Maire at the end of the meeting.

Meeting in London since yesterday, the G7 finance ministers announced that they had reached an agreement on a tax reform targeting multinationals and the establishment of a global minimum tax on companies.

Objective: to continue the work initiated within the framework of the OECD on this file blocked by the previous American administration, and to fight against tax evasion by large companies, foremost among which are the Gafa.

Bruno Le Maire French Minister in a video posted on Twitter said:

"We have reached an agreement on the international taxation of the 21st century".

"France can be proud of this step, which should allow in particular a fair taxation of the digital giants and a minimum taxation of corporate tax, to avoid tax avoidance and optimization which rightly revolt our compatriots. ".

The minimum corporate tax rate is set "at a minimum of 15%," said Bruno Le Maire, who intends to "fight" to increase it as much as possible during the next meetings scheduled on this file.

Some would have liked the G7 to go further, by establishing a higher minimum corporate tax rate.

This is particularly the case of Oxfam, which described the agreement as a "discount compromise".

"The rate retained of 15% is simply too low", considers the organization, which denounced

the “lack of ambition” of Europeans in this fight.

Same observation for Attac France, which criticizes a "historical non-advance" and a "missed opportunity".

The association defended a much higher rate, established at 25%. Bruno Le Maire emphasizes that the 15% rate is only a "starting point" for future negotiations to revise it upwards.

G7 members, including France, Germany and the UK, also hailed constructive meetings and a promising multilateralism victory for the future.

US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen noted "unprecedented commitment" from G7 ministers. The minimum corporate tax rate "would put an end to the race to the bottom of corporate taxation," she said.

“There is still important work to be done, but today's decision creates a large-scale dynamic for the discussions that will take place soon,” noted OECD Secretary-General Mathias Cormann.

The reactions :

As the first Gafa to react, Google said it supports "strongly the work in progress [...] We hope that the countries will continue to work together, to ensure that a balanced and lasting agreement will be finalized soon," the firm said.

Shortly after, Facebook also welcomed "the important progress made in the G7", through its head of public affairs, Nick Clegg.

“We want the international tax reform process to be successful, and we recognize that this could mean that Facebook will pay more taxes, in different places,” the representative wrote.

For its part, Amazon hailed "a welcome step forward in the effort" to stabilize the international tax system.

At the same time, the taxation weighing on the largest groups must also be reviewed.

"We are committed to reaching a fair solution on the distribution of taxing rights, with market countries being granted taxing rights on at least 20% of profits exceeding a 10% margin for the most multinational companies. large and most profitable, ”the press release read.

In short, part of the profits exceeding the 10% margin will therefore be "reallocated, then subject to tax, in the countries where they make sales," said Rishi Sunak.

The idea is, once again, to avoid tax evasion by large companies and "to meet the tax challenges arising from globalization and the digitization of the economy".

The analysis of all this :

It has to be said that the States of a large part of the world are in tow and no longer know how to "Rackete" companies to finance their civil servants, the state of life, their armies, their secret services, and so much. of things…., not to mention their policies which are too often questionable when they are not simply inadmissible or even intolerable…. !

But why not a global fixed rate tax, ie a rate which would be both the minimum but also the maximum, since the single rate !!

A reasonable single rate and reason of course, because it must be understood that denouncing tax evasion, or tax havens, is just a nasty scam !!!

Indeed if the taxation of certain countries were not so intolerable, tax havens will not exist, tax havens are a valve in the face of tax madness!

In the hypothesis of a rate so high that the companies, the humans who compose them (work), the humans who finance (with the risk of losing what they have invested) no longer earn anything, then we could say that the States will have succeeded in re-establishing a new form of slavery version 2.0 !!

Another important point, tax competition has long been a state sport to attract companies to settle in their country to the detriment of others !!!

In conclusion :

Before seeing an agreement on taxation on a global scale, it would still be necessary to be able to convince the 138 countries of the OECD of the validity of the G7 proposals.

The members of the G20 will meet next July in Venice to continue the work started at the G7, so no excessive enthusiasm, in a few words.

An announced fiscal Big Bang which is likely to turn into an Arlésienne comparable to that of the "end of tax havens" proclaimed for years without Jersey, Guernsey and other "paradisiac" islands really suffering from it!

To be continued ..... !!!

Jenny Chase for DayNewsWorld


Dizzying drop for the main cryptocurrency Wednesday, May 19, 2021: Bitcoin's price fell nearly 30% during the day, flirting with the $ 30,000 mark before climbing back to around $ 39,587 (-15% compared to the day before) in the evening. The main cryptocurrency is now far (-40%) from the record reached on April 14, at 64,865.22 dollars.

40% decrease in one month

In recent days, thousands of investors, individuals and especially institutional, have resold in panic the bitcoins they held on one of the dedicated platforms.

After Elon Musk, it is the turn of China to send the price of cryptocurrencies waltz.

Reason: Tuesday, May 18, 2021, the Chinese authorities banned the country's financial institutions from offering their clients cryptocurrency-related services.

Qualifying these as "fake currencies", three major banking federations of the country also called, Wednesday, not to accept them as a means of payment, warning against speculation. Cryptocurrencies "are not real currencies," they said on Wednesday.

China at war with bitcoin

China, long the eldorado of bitcoin, is now at war with it. Beijing has been using the hola for a few months. After telling some regions that they should end their bitcoin mining activities to meet environmental objectives, Beijing is once again tightening the screw on cryptocurrencies, a turning point in fact operated since 2019 when the government made illegal cryptocurrency payments, accused of being an instrument in the service of "criminal activities".

The country then indicated that it was worried about the speculative risks posed by cryptocurrencies on its financial system as well as on social stability. "Recently, the prices of virtual currencies have soared and then collapsed" abroad, while speculative activities "Jumped", they noted in a joint statement.

This " seriously undermines the security of people's property and disrupts the world economic order," criticized the National Internet Finance Federation, the China Banking Federation and the Payment and Compensation Federation.

The digital yuan

But this stall is also due to the digital yuan which is in the pipes. If China prohibits cryptocurrency transactions, it is on the other hand accelerating the development of its own, the digital yuan, which will be issued and supervised by the central bank. She could debut in 2022 at the Beijing Winter Olympics

One way to regain control of private initiatives in the area of ​​payment, but also the long-term ambition to compete one day with the dollar internationally. .

On Wednesday, the other cryptocurrencies (ether, ripple, litecoin…) also fell off the hook. Including dogecoin, this cryptocurrency initially born as a joke, in 2013, and regularly praised by Elon Musk on Twitter account. The total capitalization of cryptocurrencies fell to 1.390 billion dollars on May 19, against 2000 billion seven days before, according to CoinMarketCap.

This plunge in bitcoin, one more episode in the high volatility of cryptocurrency prices, testifies to the willingness of states, with China in the lead, to regain control.

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld



For the Organization, inheritance or gift taxes suffer from too many exemptions - life insurance, principal residence, business transfers - and the consequent allowances applied to transfers of assets to children. It would therefore be necessary to tax inheritances to limit the concentration of wealth.

To fight against the widening gaps in wealth, the OECD recommends increasing the tax on inheritance or donations, whose revenues are very low due to exemptions and allowances, rather than reinstating the wealth tax. (ISF), wealth inequalities being more marked than income inequalities, especially in France.

The Organization starts from an observation: "Household wealth is highly concentrated at the top of the distribution" and "the share of wealth held by the richest has increased" since the end of the twentieth century, underlines the report published Tuesday. May 12.

Out of a panel of 27 OECD countries that provided their data, the richest 10% own half of total wealth, with 18% even being concentrated in the hands of the richest 1%. France is in the OECD average with 10% of the wealthiest households owning half of the total wealth. But the variations from one country to another can be considerable. In the United States, the richest 10% thus own 79% of the country's total wealth, and 1% of them even own 42% of this wealth. Conversely, in Slovakia, this distribution is much more equitable, with the richest 10% owning 34% of national wealth (including 1% holding 9%).

Faced with this, "the inheritance or gift tax represents only 0.5% on average of budgetary revenue because the tax bases are extremely small", underlined Pascal Saint-Amans, director of the Center for Fiscal Policy and Administration. of the OECD. While France is one of the countries where the share of tax revenue from inheritance or endowment taxes is the highest at 1.38%, in the United States it represents less than 0.25%.

Numerous exemptions

The narrowness of the tax bases is explained by the numerous exemptions - life insurance, principal residence, business transfers, etc. - but also by the consequent reductions applied to transfers of assets to children. However, these exemptions, which promote optimization and tax evasion, have "regressive effects: the more wealth increases, the more the effective tax rate is reduced", contributing to undermine equity and reinforce inequalities, according to Pascal - Amans. As a result, in France, only 35% of inheritances are taxable, according to PS MP Christine Pires-Beaune, who had tabled a bill to reform this tax system.

Recommendations for greater equity

The OECD therefore recommends taxing beneficiaries on donations and inheritances they receive throughout their lives rather than piecemeal. It also recommends reviewing a French particularity, that of "applying a single rate of 60% to non-parent heirs when the rate can be 5% for a direct line inheritance raises a question of society". This place given to the bond of kinship is one of the points regularly criticized. The deputy PS also recommended to “defamiliarize” taxation and to establish it on an individual basis.

The tax treatment of life insurance is also in the spotlight. Pascal Saint-Amans thus considers that the abolition of preferential tax treatment would be justified “economically and on the basis of its regressive effects”.

The OECD also recommends more widely the taxation of capital: "the introduction of well-designed taxes on capital income, in particular on capital gains, must also be a priority".

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



Eight months into their fratricidal war, Veolia and Suez have reached an agreement.

The world leader in environmental services, Veolia, aims to buy number two, Suez. The two water and waste management giants announced on Monday April 12 that their respective boards of directors had reached an agreement in principle on the conditions for a merger, thanks to the discreet mediation of Gérard Mestrallet, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Suez then of the energy group Engie.

The two companies finally agreed on a price of 20.50 euros per Suez share, while Veolia initially offered 18 euros, an amount deemed insufficient by its rival. Veolia finally went up to buy its competitor at the cost of a long battle.

This merger should allow the constitution of a "world champion of ecological transformation", with a turnover of around 37 billion euros, according to a statement from Veolia. The price finally adopted values ​​the whole of Suez at around 13 billion euros.

A "new Suez"

At the same time, a “new Suez” must be set up, owned by a group of mainly French shareholders comprising financial partners from both groups and employees. Its scope will be made up of Suez's activities in municipal water and solid waste in France, including CIRSEE, the main research center on water and the environment in France. Added to this are Suez activities, particularly in water and in the following geographic areas: Italy (including the stake in Acea), Czech Republic, Africa, Central Asia, India, China, Australia, and digital world activities and environmental (SES).

Mr. Frérot, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Veolia, says he is "very confident" about the integration of the two teams which, he says, have "a common culture". He reiterated his social commitments, vis-à-vis the very worried Suez employees, for a period of four years after the closing of the offer, which can only take place after the green light from the competition authorities, in particular. that of the European Commission. He also reaffirmed his desire to “integrate and mix the management teams at headquarters and in the countries”. Bertrand Camus, CEO of Suez, and fierce opponent of the takeover bid (OPA), will not be part of the management team of the future Veolia.

The two French flagships have been clashing since last year, especially since the acquisition by Veolia in October of 29.9% of Suez from Engie before launching a takeover bid on the rest of the shares. For seven months, they have multiplied legal proceedings, invective through the press, pressure blows and warning signs. At the same time, everyone regularly showed their willingness to reach out to their rival, but on their own terms, giving the impression of a dialogue of the deaf.

The affair had also taken a political turn, the Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire intervening on several occasions, and again at the end of March, to estimate that an agreement remained “possible” between the two rivals.

"I am delighted that Veolia and Suez have reached an amicable agreement, in accordance with the wish expressed by the State since the start of this industrial operation", reacted the Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire in a press release.

According to the boss of Bercy, who thanks all the players, this agreement “preserves competition for customer services between two large national industrial companies in the treatment of water and waste. It guarantees their good development on national and international markets . It preserves employment ".

Alyson Braxton for DayNewsWorld


The President of the US Central Bank is more worried about the risk of a large-scale cyberattack than of a global financial crisis similar to that of 2008. The risks of a crisis resembling the so-called “subprime” crisis, with the Governments' need for bank bailouts "are very, very weak," Jerome Powell said on CBS news 60 Minutes. "The world is changing.

The world evolves ! And the risks too !!

And I would say the risk we watch the most is cyber risk, ”he said, adding that this is a concern shared by many governments, large private companies especially financial ones. It is also against this risk that all these players invest the most.

Jerome Powell pointed out that the Federal Reserve (Fed) is looking at different types of scenarios. “There are scenarios in which (...) the payment system cannot work. Payments can't make and things like that, ”he detailed. The Fed is also considering the possibility that part or even a large part of the financial system could shut down. "We therefore spend a lot of time, energy and money to protect ourselves against that", underlined the boss of the powerful institution, recalling that there are cyberattacks of large institutions "every day".

Towards a digital dollar ?

Jerome Powell was also asked about the possibility of creating a digital dollar as China last month became the first major global economic power to unveil a cryptocurrency. He pointed out that the Fed is currently evaluating this possibility. “We believe it is our duty to understand. How would that work? What would be the characteristics? ”He explained.

He also indicated that the Fed is developing software and even designing the appearance of a digital US dollar, but the final decision to release it will not be made until its impact is fully understood. The dollar is “the reserve currency of the world. The dollar is so important ... We don't have to be the first to do it. We want to do it right. And that's what we're going to do, ”he insisted.

Last October, Jerome Powell had already indicated that the United States was considering issuing their cryptocurrency, but then warned that the full assessment of the benefits and risks would take time. Creating a digital dollar could benefit the US economy, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said more recently in an interview with the New York Times on February 22.

She then mentioned the need for central banks to properly assess the associated issues, in particular consumer protection.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Après des heures de débats et un vote marathon, le Sénat américain a approuvé le 6 mars 2021 le plan de 1.900 milliards de dollars voulu par Joe Biden pour relancer la première économie mondiale frappée par la pandémie.

Le texte repart cette semaine à la Chambre des représentants, où les démocrates, majoritaires, devraient l'approuver rapidement pour que Joe Biden puisse le promulguer d'ici le 14 mars.

Ce plan de relance, qui inclut le financement des vaccins et des fournitures médicales, étend l'aide au chômage et fournit une nouvelle série d'aides financières d'urgence aux ménages, aux petites entreprises et aux autorités locales, bénéficie selon les sondages d'opinion d'un large soutien.

Le président américain a salué le vote au Sénat d'un plan dont les Etats-Unis ont « désespérément besoin », selon lui, pour sortir de la crise née de la pandémie de coronavirus.

« Nous avons fait un pas de géant » pour venir en aide aux Américains, a dit, depuis la Maison Blanche, le chef de l'Etat, qui avait fait de ce plan de soutien massif l'une de ses promesses de campagne.

Ce sera le troisième plan d'aides exceptionnelles approuvé par le Congrès pendant la pandémie. Les républicains ont largement soutenu les plans précédents pour lutter contre le coronavirus et relancer la plus grande économie du monde, qui a perdu 9,5 millions d'emplois depuis l'année dernière.

Financement des vaccins et extension de l'aide au chômage

Le plan de relance, qui inclut le financement des vaccins et des fournitures médicales, étend l'aide au chômage et fournit une nouvelle série d'aides financières d'urgence aux ménages, aux petites entreprises et aux autorités locales, bénéficie selon les sondages d'opinion d'un large soutien.

Le plan des démocrates prévoit notamment des chèques de 1.400 dollars pour des millions d'Américains, ainsi que 350 milliards de dollars d'aide aux Etats et aux collectivités locales. Le texte prévoit aussi des milliards de dollars pour lutter contre la pandémie, dont 49 milliards pour le dépistage et la recherche, en plus de 14 milliards pour la distribution du vaccin

Vers un mini-boom économique au printemps?

Publiés vendredi les chiffres de l'emploi sont encourageants. Le taux de chômage aux États-Unis, bien que toujours élevé à 6,2% le mois dernier, a baissé par rapport à 6,3% enregistrés en janvier. Un signe annonciateur pour certains d'un mini-boom économique au printemps.

En février, 379.000 emplois ont été créés, près de trois fois plus qu'en janvier. Mais il faudra encore du temps pour retrouver le niveau d'avant la pandémie: 18 millions d'Américains touchent toujours une allocation, après avoir perdu leur emploi ou vu leurs revenus plonger.

« A ce rythme, il faudra deux ans pour revenir dans les clous » et retrouver le niveau de février 2020, a averti Joe Biden.

Britney Delsey pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.




La Cour suprême britannique a estimé, vendredi 19 février, dans une décision très attendue, que les chauffeurs Uber pouvaient être considérés comme des « travailleurs » salariés, rejetant ainsi le recours du géant américain de réservation de voitures.

La justice aura donc donné à chaque fois raison à un groupe d’une vingtaine de chauffeurs qui estiment avoir droit au statut de travailleur, compte tenu du temps qu’ils passent en étant connectés à l’application et du contrôle exercé par le groupe.

La Cour suprême a estimé « qu’en se connectant à l’application Uber à Londres, un chauffeur dans le cadre de la plainte est considéré comme un travailleur en entrant dans un contrat.

La compagnie estimait que les chauffeurs sont des travailleurs indépendants, choisissant leurs horaires et lieux de travail, et collaborant parfois à plusieurs applications en même temps.

Cette décision signifie que les chauffeurs Uber, qui étaient jusque-là des travailleurs indépendants, devraient avoir droit par exemple à un salaire minimum et à des congés payés, ce qui pourrait chambouler le modèle économique d’Uber au Royaume-Uni mais augmenter de manière substantiel les coûts du géant américain de la réservation de voitures avec chauffeur (VTC), qui n'est toujours pas rentable.

Une décision qui pourrait aussi faire boule de neige pour l’ensemble des plates-formes numériques.

Jaimies Potts pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Au terme de plusieurs semaines de polémiques sur les retards de livraisons de vaccins, la présidente de la Commission européenne Ursula von der Leyen était, mercredi matin, au Parlement européen pour s’expliquer. Elle a reconnu des erreurs et détaillé les pistes pour garantir l’approvisionnement futur des Vingt-Sept.

Ursula von der Leyen s'est tout d'abord employée à convaincre que l'Union européenne faisait « tout ce qui était possible » pour accélérer la production de masse de doses de vaccin et tenir l'objectif de vacciner 70 % des adultes d'ici à la fin de l'été.

Aujourd’hui, l’Europe a à sa disposition trois vaccins (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna et AstraZeneca) mais elle est à la traîne par rapport aux Etats-Unis, au Royaume-Uni et à Israël : seules 26 millions de doses lui ont été livrées et 17 millions des 450 millions de citoyens européens ont pu être vaccinés.

« C'est un fait que nous ne sommes pas aujourd'hui là où nous voudrions être dans la lutte contre le coronavirus », a reconnu Ursula von der Leyen. « Nous avons été en retard pour l'approbation des vaccins. Nous avons été trop optimistes sur la production de masse. Et peut-être avons-nous eu aussi trop de certitudes sur le fait que les commandes seraient effectivement livrées dans les temps », a-t-elle ajouté.

Alors qu’AstraZeneca projette toujours de ne livrer que 40 millions de doses au premier trimestre, au lieu des 120 millions inscrites dans son contrat, von der Leyen est revenue sur la «task force» placée sous l’autorité du commissaire Thierry Breton, très récemment créée pour «détecter les problèmes de production et aider à les résoudre». Le Français n’a pas perdu de temps se rendant dès mercredi dans l’usine Thermo Fisher de Seneffe (Belgique), sous-traitant d’AstraZeneca en Europe.

Les Européens ont sous-estimé la complexité liée à la production de masse de ces doses. « On ne peut pas mettre en place un site de production du jour au lendemain. Sa production intègre jusqu'à 400 composants différents et implique jusqu'à 100 entreprises », a rappelé la présidente de l'exécutif européen. « L'industrie doit s'adapter au rythme inédit de la science […] Nous avons besoin d'une coordination accrue sur les ingrédients clés, nous devons améliorer la montée en puissance des capacités […] afin de s'assurer que nous serons en sécurité l'hiver prochain en dépit des variants », a-t-elle insisté.

Ursula von der Leyen . a également promis la création d'un « groupe de contact » entre la Commission et le Parlement. La question de la transparence sur les contrats signés avec les groupes pharmaceutiques est également revenue en boucle.

Trois contrats ont déjà été mis à la disposition des élus - quoiqu'en partie expurgés des clauses les plus sensibles - et un quatrième, celui signé avec Johnson & Johnson devrait rapidement être consultable.

De très nombreux eurodéputés ont encore demandé à la Commission de publier l’intégralité de ces documents, pour l’heure couverts par le secret des affaires. «Je suis convaincue que l’UE a fait son possible. Mais j’aimerais le prouver aux citoyens et, pour cela, il faut de la transparence», a déclaré l’eurodéputée écologiste luxembourgeoise, Tilly Metz.

«Le manque de transparence est l’humus des thèses conspirationnistes», a alerté le socialiste bulgare Petar Vitanov.

Abby Shelcore pour le DayNewsWorld


When on Friday, February 5, 2021, a hundred economists launched an appeal to cancel the debts of states held by the European Central Bankafter the Covid-19 pandemic, Christine Lagarde hastenedto warn them.

"A violation of the European treaty"

Christine Lagarde returned in their goals the 100 economists who launched this appeal: "Unthinkable", replied Sunday, February 7 the President of the European Central Bank (ECB), Christine Lagarde, in an interview in the Sunday Journal. For the former Minister of the Economy, this would be "a violation of the European treaty which strictly prohibits the monetary financing of States".

"This rule is one of the fundamental pillars of the euro", continues the former boss of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). “If the energy spent demanding the ECB's debt cancellation were devoted to a debate on the use of this debt, it would be much more useful! What will public spending be allocated to? In which sectors of the future to invest? This is the essential subject today, ”says Christine Lagarde at JDD.

"Debts are managed over the long term"

For Christine Lagarde, “there is no doubt” that the countries of the euro zone “will manage” to repay this debt. "All the countries of the euro zone will emerge from this crisis with high debt levels", said Christine Lagarde in the JDD. But “there is no doubt that they will manage to repay it. Debts are managed over the long term. Investments made in sectors that are decisive for the future will generate stronger growth, "she believes." The recovery will create jobs, and therefore unite. We are moving towards another economy, more digital, greener, more committed to climate change and to maintaining biodiversity. "

2021, the year of recovery

Predicting a rebound in European GDP of 6.5% in 2021, Christine Lagarde believes, however, that activity will not return to its pre- crisis level before mid-2022. After the crisis, she therefore advises not to tighten all the taps on budgetary and monetary policy at once, as was the case in the past. “Conversely, it will be necessary to provide the economies with a gradually diminished support, as the pandemic recedes and the recovery takes hold. The economy will then have to relearn how to operate without the exceptional aid made necessary by the crisis.

I'm not worried because the rebound ability is strong. Our economies are resilient ”.

Kelly Donaldson for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Alors que la plupart des pays du monde ont commencé à vacciner leur population contre le Covid-19, une idée fait son chemin: la création d'un « passeport vaccinal » pour un retour à la vie normale

De la France à Israël en passant par la Suisse, la création d'un « passeport vaccinal », « passeport sanitaire » ou « passeport vert » a été émise au sein des sphères politiques et économiques. Il s'agit d'un document qui atteste qu'une personne a bien été vaccinée contre le Covid-19. Il permettrait, à ceux qui le détiennent, de voyager librement à l'étranger, de se rendre au restaurant ou d'aller au cinéma. Une initiative qui n'est pas sans rappeler le certificat international de vaccination délivré aux personnes qui se sont fait vacciner contre la fièvre jaune et qui est obligatoire pour se rendre dans certains pays d'Afrique ou d'Amérique du Sud.

Plusieurs projets en développement.

Le gouvernement israélien a par exemple présenté, début janvier, une application qui sera l'équivalent d'un passeport numérique pour obtenir un droit d'entrée dans les lieux publics, après un test PCR négatif ou une vaccination. Une application pourrait être lancée dès janvier, rapporte le Jerusalem Post.Sans ce sésame, les restaurants, cinémas ou encore salles de concert resteront inaccessibles. L'Estonie, elle, travaille en partenariat avec l'OMS sur la création d'un « Certificat international de vaccination numérique ».

Plusieurs initiatives privées existent également afin de réunir sur mobile l'ensemble des données de santé nécessaires pour franchir les frontières. L'Association internationale du transport aérien, l'Iata, qui réunit près de 300 compagnies aériennes, devrait aussi lancer son propre système de passeport sanitaire.Une coalition américaine de sociétés informatiques, d'institutions de santé et d'ONG a annoncé jeudi qu'elle allait travailler sur une version numérique et papier d'un tel document. Baptisée VCI (Vaccination Credential Initiative), la coalition comprend notamment le géant de l'informatique Microsoft et les éditeurs de logiciels Salesforce et Oracle.

L'industrie du tourisme, durement touchée par la crise coronavirus, considère ce passeport «  vaccinal » comme un espoir pour que les voyages redeviennent possibles sans trop de contraintes (test PCR négatif, quarantaine à l'arrivée dans un pays...). La compagnie aérienne australienne Qantas envisage d'ailleurs déjà d'exiger un tel document pour les voyageurs internationaux arrivant en Australie.

Ce document fait débat

L'instauration d'un « passeport vaccinal » fait cependant débat. En France, où la vaccination contre le Covid-19 n'est pas obligatoire, de nombreuses personnes y restent encore réfractaires. Si 47% des Français souhaitent se faire vacciner, selon le dernier sondage Elabe 40% ne veulent pas s'y soumettre. Un tel document pourrait donc diviser la société en deux, entre ceux qui disposeraient de ce sésame et pourraient reprendre une vie normale, et les autres. Une atteinte aux libertés individuelles qui pose question.

Comme avec les applications de traçage, la question de la protection des données de santé se trouve également posée.

Des incertitudes entourent également les différents vaccins développés à travers le monde: quels vaccins pourront être présentés selon les pays? Pour l'heure, ils affichent des taux d'efficacité différents et un niveau de développement variable.De plus s'ils empêchent de développer les symptômes de la maladie, on ne sait pas encore exactement combien de temps dure leur protection. Il existe également une inconnue concernant le fait que les personnes vaccinées puissent être porteuses du virus de façon asymptomatique et le transmettre.

Dans l'état actuel des connaissances, ce passeport serait donc une fausse sécurité.

Andrew Preston pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



L'année 2020 a été pour le moins chaotique. La pandémie de Covid-19 et ses conséquences sur l'économie ont certainement déjoué les pronostics les plus catastrophistes. Après deux vagues de contaminations, des confinements et couvre-feu imposés aux populations, la chute record de l'activité, la multiplication des plans sociaux et des licenciements... qu'est-ce que 2021 nous réserve? Comme il y a un an, Saxo Banque s'est livrée à plusieurs « prévisions choc » pour l'année à venir.

« La pandémie de la Covid-19 et l'élection présidentielle américaine, particulièrement chaotique, ont précipité l'avènement d'un futur jusqu'alors lointain, accélérant pratiquement toutes les super tendances sociales et technologiques sous-jacentes », estime Steen Jakobsen, le directeur des investissements de Saxo Banque. « Pour faire court, les traumatismes de 2020 signifient qu'en 2021, le futur sera déjà là », ajoute-t-il.

Alors que les Etats s'endettent à des niveaux records pour financer leur soutien à l'économie et leurs plans de relance, l'établissement financier souligne notamment les risques liés au remboursement de la dette.

La France ne parvient plus à rembourser ses dettes et demande l'aide de l'Allemagne

Pour faire face au plongeon de l'activité provoqué par les mesures de restrictions sanitaires, la France a engagé un plan de relance de 100 milliards d'euros et multiplié les aides et dispositifs comme le chômage partiel à destination des entreprises. Résultat, le pays est l'un des Etats européens qui affichera l'un des plus hauts niveaux d'endettement dans les prochaines années.

La dette publique devrait passer de près de 100% du PIB avant la pandémie à 120% en 2021. Sans parler de la dette privée qui était déjà « en train de s'envoler " avant la crise, « pour atteindre près de 140% du PIB, un chiffre nettement supérieur à celui observé en Italie (106%) et en Espagne (119%) », souligne Saxo Banque.

Dans ces circonstances, l'établissement financier anticipe qu'une vague de faillites pourrait survenir en France en 2021, affectant en premier lieu le secteur tertiaire, comme la restauration et les entreprises liées au tourisme. Les prêts garantis par l'Etat ne joueraient plus leur rôle de garde-fou, les banques ne parviendraient plus à subvenir aux besoins de l'économie. Leur produit net bancaire, équivalent du chiffre d'affaires dans le secteur,chuterait et les provisions pour pertes de crédit augmenteraient brutalement. Les investisseurs se désengageraient alors massivement des groupes bancaires qui s'effondreraient comme jamais en Bourse.

« Compte tenu du piètre état des finances publiques et du niveau extraordinairement élevé de la dette publique, la France n'a d’autre choix que de venir demander assistance à l'Allemagne, afin de permettre à la Banque centrale européenne (BCE) d'injecter suffisamment de liquidités pour renflouer massivement le système bancaire et éviter un effondrement systémique », prévoit alors Saxo Banque.

« L'idée qui sous-tend derrière est un quantitative easing [assouplissement quantitatif, ndlr] infini »", explique Christopher Dembik, directeur de la recherche macro-économique chez Saxo Banque. Autrement dit, l'Allemagne donnerait son accord pour que la BCE soutienne l'économie française en rachetant des titres de dette de l'Etat et des entreprises tricolores de manière illimitée, dans le temps comme au niveau des montants.

L'arrivée d'un vaccin entraîne une vague de faillites aux Etats-Unis

Les annonces de vaccin contre le Covid-19 constituent des nouvelles rassurantes et positives. Gare toutefois à l'excès d'optimisme. Les plans de soutien et d'urgence des gouvernements ont atteint des montants historiques en 2020, jusqu'à 2 200 milliards de dollars mis sur la table aux Etats-Unis au printemps. Et le nouveau président élu Joe Biden souhaite un nouveau plan d'aides équivalent. Les banques centrales, comme la BCE ou la Réserve fédérale (Fed) outre-Atlantique, ont aussi injecté massivement des liquidités dans l'économie ces derniers mois.

« Avec le recul, il s'avère que l'économie a été stimulée à l'excès pendant la pandémie, et la forte reprise post-vaccin met rapidement l'économie en surchauffe », anticipe Saxo Banque. « L'inflation accélère et le taux de chômage chute tellement vite que la Fed laisse les taux longs augmenter, entraînant dans la foulée une hausse des taux des titres de dette plus risqués », poursuit la banque d'investissement. Résultat, alors que l'économie repartait et les entreprises parvenaient à se financer facilement auprès des banques et des investisseurs, les conditions de financement se trouvent brusquement resserrées. « Les taux de défaut des entreprises atteignent leur plus haut niveau depuis des années. Les premières à disparaître sont les entreprises surendettées du secteur de la distribution physique, qui éprouvaient déjà des difficultés avant la pandémie », prévoit Saxo Banque. La Fed commettrait donc une erreur stratégique, en relevant ses taux pour limiter l'inflation des prix et des salaires, provoquant par ricochet une nette hausse des taux d'emprunt bancaires et une vague de faillites historique aux Etats-Unis.

Les difficultés rencontrées par la première économie mondiale ne manqueraient pas d'avoir des répercussions sur les autres pays.

Amazon fait de Chypre un paradis fiscal privatisé, l'UE réagit en conséquence

Les géants de la tech américains sont de plus en plus influents et leurs produits incontournables. « On a vu ces dernières années des multinationales devenir plus puissantes que des Etats », souligne Christopher Dembik. Ces entreprises ne lésinent pas sur le lobbying et adoptent parfois des approches « quasi gouvernementales », estime Saxo Banque. Microsoft a par exemple créé un bureau de représentation des Nations Unies à New York et recruté un diplomate pour traiter des affaires gouvernementales européennes.

Facebook a de son côté mis en place une « Cour suprême » pour examiner notamment les réclamations des utilisateurs. En 2021, Saxo Banque anticipe qu'Amazon pourrait aller jusqu'à dicter à Chypre sa politique fiscale. Dans un contexte de pression croissante sur le mastodonte du e-commerce, accusé de nombreux maux dont l'évitement fiscal, Amazon déménagerait son siège social européen du Luxembourg à Chypre.

« Le pays accueille à bras ouverts le géant de la vente en ligne et les recettes fiscales qui lui permettront de réduire son ratio dette/PIB de près de 100% », prévoit la banque danoise. Chypre saisirait cette opportunité après avoir subi les mesures d'austérité imposées par l'Union européenne (UE) durant la crise de la dette souveraine en 2010-2012. Les conseillers d'Amazon aideraient alors l'île à réécrire son code fiscal pour répliquer celui de l'Irlande, « mais avec un taux d'imposition sur les sociétés et des taxes encore plus faibles, pour le plus grand bonheur des dirigeants et de la population, soumis à la manne financière que cela représente ».

Face à cette situation, l'Union européenne réagirait sans tarder et forcerait l'entreprise de Jeff Bezos à changer ses pratiques. De plus, cet événement enclencherait un mouvement d'harmonisation fiscale, dicté par l'UE. Des règles communes seraient alors adoptées à Chypre et dans l'ensemble des autres Etats membres. « Dans ce scénario, on assisterait plutôt à une harmonisation à la baisse de la fiscalité », explique Christopher Dembik, sans aller jusqu'au niveau de taxation de l'Irlande, particulièrement bas en Europe.

Les Gafa pourraient globalement subir la volonté des Etats de limiter leurs monopoles en 2021, alors que la pandémie de coronavirus n'a pas entamé leur puissance et qu'ils continuent d'étendre leurs activités.

Carl Delsey pour DayNewsWorld



The discovery of several effective vaccines changes the situation and gives hope for an economic rebound in the medium term, but the “short-term prospects” remain very uncertain. This is the message from the OECD which reviewed and published its growth forecasts at the global level on Tuesday, December 1, 2020.

The OECD has released its outlook for the world economy. For 2020, the organization now expects a global recession of 4.2% this year, followed by a rebound of 4.2% in 2021 and 3.7% in 2022.

In 2021, the expected rebound stands at over 4.2%, this estimate was 5% before the fall re-adjustments.

“We project that by the end of 2022, global GDP will be some $ 7 trillion lower - which is about a third of the US economy - than what it would have been in our projections. 'before the pandemic. The impact is therefore rather massive ”, underlined the Secretary General of the OECD Angel Gurria. China, the first epicenter of the pandemic in early 2020, has managed to bring the virus under control more quickly. Thus, its economy is the only one among the large countries to escape the recession (+ 1.8% expected this year).

The International Organization underlines the very strong heterogeneity of countries, depending on the extent of the pandemic, the various measures put in place to deal with it, between containment and support plans. In the euro zone, the fall in activity was estimated at 7.5% this year.

In 2021, growth is expected to rebound by 3.6% and 3.3% in 2022. In developed economies, Great Britain and Spain, will experience the largest drops this year, followed by France and Italy. Germany is doing better, as are Japan and the United States. As for emerging countries, India, Mexico and South Africa recorded the worst performances.

The recovery can be counted on, given the sharp rise in the savings rate, particularly in the United States, on more dynamic consumption which could offset the deterioration in the labor markets with an expected surge in insolvencies and unemployment. SMEs are particularly vulnerable and corporate debt is reaching worrying levels, says the OECD.

The upsurge in the epidemic "and the containment measures put in place have slowed the pace of the global recovery" underlines the OECD. The institution warns that this trend "should persist for some time given the challenges to be overcome (...) before a vaccine can be distributed on a large scale in the world".

As for the macroeconomic response, the OECD is on the same line as the IMF: the current expansionary monetary and budgetary policies must be continued, the time has not come to tighten the screws.

"Ensuring that the debt is bearable will only be a priority when the recovery is on track," she warns.

Andrew Perston for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



La Corée du Nord traverse une période d’instabilité économique depuis le début de la crise sanitaire, couplée par des sanctions internationales prononcées par l’ONU et les États-Unis à la suite de ses essais nucléaires.

Le dictateur nord-coréen Kim Jong-un aurait donc fait exécuter fin octobre un trader à cause d'une baisse spectaculaire de 20% du won face au dollar américain au cours des derniers mois. , rapporte le quotidien sud-coréen Hankyoreh. Le média, cité par BFM Bourse, se base sur un rapport fait ce vendredi devant le Parlement de Séoul par le service de renseignements de la Corée du Sud.

« Envoyer un avertissement public »

Or le dictateur voudrait resserrer son emprise sur l’économie et plus particulièrement sur le marché des devises. « Pendant longtemps, Kim-Jong-Un n’est pas intervenu sur le secteur privé... Il n’a pas seulement toléré mais encouragé la décentralisation et le passage à des relations de marché entre les entreprises industrielles et les particuliers. Aujourd’hui, il essaie de faire marche arrière », a déclaré Andrei Lankov, un expert nord-coréen de l’Université Kookmin à Séoul.

Selon lui, l’exécution du trader a pour but d’ ' « envoyer un avertissement public sur la nécessité d’aller dans le sens des directives du régime concernant l’utilisation des devises étrangères. »

L’un de membres de la commission des renseignements de l’Assemblée nationale sud-coréenne, Kim Byung-kee, a déclaré qu’il s’agissait là de la dernière exécution survenue dans le cadre de mesures « déraisonnables » prises par le dictateur.

Britney Delsey pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Mette Frederiksen s'est interrompue à plusieurs reprises pour essuyer ses larmes.

Après l'abattage au Danemark de plus des deux tiers des quelque 15 à 17 millions de visons, après la découverte de foyers de Covid-19 dans les élevages du pays, la cheffe du gouvernement danois s'est pour la première fois excusée personnellement pour la gestion de cette crise.

« Je considère qu'il y a lieu de s'excuser pour le déroulement des faits.

Je n'ai aucun problème pour dire pardon pour ça car des fautes ont été commises », a-t-elle dit à la télévision TV2 en sortant de sa visite chez un éleveur à Kolding, dans l'ouest du pays, dont les bêtes ont été euthanasiées.

La Première ministre avait décidé l'abattage massif en raison d'une mutation problématique du coronavirus via ces mustélidés qui pouvait, selon des études préliminaires, menacer l'efficacité du futur vaccin pour les humains.

Quelques jours plus tard, le gouvernement avait toutefois reconnu qu'il n'avait pas de base légale suffisante pour faire éliminer les bêtes saines.

La démission du ministre de l'Agriculture

Le ministre de l'Agriculture s'était aussi excusé, avant de finalement démissionner.

Le 19 novembre 2020 , le ministère de la Santé avait conclu que cette menace potentielle pour les vaccins humains était « très probablement éteinte », en l'absence de nouveau cas détecté.

« C'est important de se rappeler que ce n'est pas de la faute des éleveurs, c'est la faute du coronavirus, si l'industrie ne peut pas continuer », a ajouté la cheffe du gouvernement, parlant d'une visite « émouvante .

Depuis le début de cette crise, un projet de loi a été déposé au Parlement visant l'interdiction des élevages de visons jusqu'en 2022.

Andrew Preston pour DayNewsWorld



In its opinion of October 26, 2020 published Friday evening, the Scientific Council delivered its vision of the future and it is not pleasant. The Scientific Council published, Sunday, the note in which it advocated a tougher curfew or containment and anticipates other epidemic waves. “There are […] many months ahead of us with an extremely difficult situation,” predicts the Scientific Council.

Anticipate new waves

Even if the restriction measures are successful, the second wave may not be the last. Scientists therefore expect "successive waves of recrudescence until the arrival of the first vaccines and / or prophylactic treatments" expected for the second quarter of 2021. "We can have several successive waves during the end of winter / spring 2021, depending on different elements: climatic condition, level and operational efficiency of the 'test, trace, isolate' strategy ”, underlines the Scientific Council.

Consequently, the authorities must be prepared to manage “successive waves of recrudescence” until the arrival of a possible vaccine or treatment, expected for the second quarter of 2021. Regarding the current period, the Scientific Council issues the hypothesis of an exit from the second wave at the end of the year or the beginning of the year 2021. The second "deconfinement" will not be like the previous one, since it will take place in winter.

Rethink the test-trace-isolate strategy

Although self-criticism is not the government's great strength, the Scientific Council nevertheless recommends that it "learn from the relative failure of the" Test-Tracer-Isolate "strategy during the period from May to September 2020".

Indeed, detecting cases early and isolating them successfully is the only method for "control of viral circulation as has been shown in a small number of countries in South East Asia".

Scientists therefore call for an increase in dedicated "human numbers" and "the implementation of the" All Anticovid "application on a large fraction of the population". The council recommends that antigen testing can be carried out on a large scale outside of biological laboratories. This would make it possible to monitor high schools, colleges and schools to protect staff and prevent children from bringing the Covid home.

And after ? Faced with this, two strategies are envisaged.

1 ° One consists of alternating periods of restrictions with periods of carelessness.

2 ° The other tries to maintain control of the circulation of the virus at a low rate. This “strategy of suppressing viral circulation, as carried out by several Asian countries, Denmark, Finland and Germany […] implies strong and early measures each time an epidemic resumes”.

Go to a "removal" of the virus

“Go from 40,000 contaminations per day to 5,000” by December 1: this is the goal set by Emmanuel Macron when he announced the reconfinement on October 28. This threshold of 5,000 cases is also mentioned by the Scientific Council. It is at the heart of the policy of “suppressing viral circulation” that it advocates.

For the Council, this indicator is not only the objective to be reached thanks to confinement, but a threshold not to be exceeded at the end of the second wave. This policy, which therefore aims to constantly keep the virus below a rate of 5,000 contaminations per day, is followed by "several Asian countries, Denmark, Finland and Germany". This option "implies strong and early measures each time an epidemic resumes", underlines the body, which considers however that it is "the best guarantee of the maintenance of economic activity".

An "on / off" type strategy

This is the other strategy proposed by the Scientific Council for the management of future epidemic waves. Concretely, this would mean alternating periods of restrictions (curfew, confinement, etc.) and periods of lifting of restrictions.

"This period of confinement could be envisaged for a short period, of a few weeks (about four weeks), and be followed, depending on the effects obtained, by a period of health curfew", estimates the Scientific Council.

In addition to the health effects, the authority explains that this measure "would preserve more than a confinement of certain economic and social activities". The trail of a curfew until the beginning of January 2021 had also already been formulated by the president of the Scientific Council, Jean-François Delfraissy.

“Is this possible in the long term ?

Will the French accept such a strategy, is it economically viable ? », Asks the Council, however.

According to the authority, this is a sine qua non for the success of the future strategies chosen by the authorities.

"It is essential that we start to think of other ways of living with the Covid in the long term and that the choices can be based on a vision from civil society and not only on the orientations given by experts to inform the authorities' decisions."

Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld



In addition to the Corona virus, the virus of Salafism which threatens France.

France has indeed gone this week from one shock to another, the horror of terrorism adding to the nagging health crisis after the assassination of Samuel Paty, professor in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine (Yvelines), killed Friday for teaching freedom of expression by showing his students caricatures of Mohammed from Charlie Hebdo.

Mobilization takes place in France Support for courage and support for expression, a barrier to obscurantism.

"National Education can no longer close its eyes for long in the face of the unhealthy and intolerable pressure to which teachers are subject in their educational mission when they tackle subjects which do not please a minority", deplores Valérie Pécresse.

“The Republic has been challenged for years and is looking elsewhere.

This abject tragedy must be a salutary shock, ”adds the president of the Ile-de-France region in an interview with a colleague.
A defense council at the Elysee Palace at 6 p.m. will not be enough !

After the words we need actions .... !!!

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld



The OECD has certainly finalized the architecture of a new taxation of multinationals in the era of the digital revolution, but has failed to find a political agreement.

The international community has never been so close to an agreement on how to tax multinationals in the age of globalization and digital technology, the famous super “GAFA tax” (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon), who needs to bring fairness to the tax system.

The OECD in fact offers States a worldwide tax of 12% to 13% on the profits of multinationals.

Objective of the GAFA tax

The aim is to bring international tax rules into line with the e-commerce revolution and thus prevent “tech giants” like Google, Facebook and Amazon from being able to report their profits in low-tax countries like Ireland regardless. or the place where their activities take place.

Clearly, companies that escape tax would be reintegrated into the system.

Failure of political agreement

But the 137 have failed to agree to tax the digital giants. The United States remains in the background, France in the front line. .

In the absence of an international framework, a growing number of governments stand ready to impose national rules, with the inherent risk of exposing themselves to trade reprisals that the Trump administration has threatened. In July 2019, France opened the way by adopting the so-called “Gafa tax” tax on the activities of digital giants, which has applied since January 1, 2019.

In retaliation, the Trump administration threatened to overtax "up to 100%" the equivalent of $ 2.4 billion of French products, including wine. In January, Paris and Washington had decreed a truce, France pledging to postpone the payment of installments for 2020 scheduled for April and November, in order to give time for negotiations at the OECD.

A shortfall of 100 billion dollars

“In the worst-case scenario, these conflicts could reduce global GDP by more than 1%,” notes the OECD, which is leading these international negotiations.

Conversely, new rules on the taxation of digital companies and a plan for a global minimum tax could increase the tax revenue from the taxation of the income of large companies by 1.9% to 3.2%, i.e. amount between 50 billion and 80 billion per year. This sum could even reach 100 billion dollars by adding to it the existing American tax on the profits made abroad, adds the OECD.

But the Gafa tax will wait.

OECD members have yet to come to an agreement on taxing the digital giants. "The package is almost ready, but a political agreement is missing," admitted Pascal Saint-Amans, the head of tax policy at the OECD, Monday, October 12, 2020.

Many obstacles against the backdrop of Covid-19 and the American election

As the project becomes more technically precise, at a time of real political choices, many obstacles still have to be removed: agreeing on the scope of the tax - only GAFAs, or all multinationals selling at a distance - and on the precise distribution keys for the new tax, between the countries, where companies are established, and their “market” countries, where their customers are located ...

All in a stressed political climate, between the US presidential election and the management of the Covid-19 pandemic, and against a backdrop of latent opposition from tax havens.......

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



La France espère « trouver un projet commun franco-allemand » sur l'hydrogène, a affirmé dimanche le ministre de l'Economie Bruno Le Maire. « Je serai le 11 septembre à Berlin et nous allons regarder comment conjuguer nos efforts », a-t-il déclaré dans l'émission Grand rendez-vous Europe 1/Les Echos/CNews. « Nous allons regarder avec l'Allemagne comment on peut conjuguer les 7 milliards que la France met sur ce grand projet d'hydrogène, avec les 9 milliards que l'Allemagne met de son côté » a expliqué le ministre de l'Economie.

« J'espère bien que nous arriverons à trouver un projet commun franco-allemand, puis européen, sur l'hydrogène », a-t-il précisé.

Les plans de relance post-Covid feront-ils naître les champions européens de l’énergie décarbonée de demain? Alors que la France entend investir, comme l’Allemagne, plusieurs milliards d’euros dans l’hydrogène d’ici 10 ans, le gouvernement n’exclut pas de trouver des synergies industrielles au sein de l’espace européen.

Contexte politique favorable

Le contexte politique et industriel se prête en effet à un rapprochement franco-allemand sur la question de l’hydrogène vert. Berlin a dévoilé début juin un plan de développement de l’hydrogène propre, produit par électrolyse de l’eau avec de l’électricité issue de sources renouvelables, auquel l’Etat consacrera 9 milliards d’euros.

De son côté, Paris consacrera 7 milliards d’euros à un plan Hydrogène sur dix ans, dont 2 milliards iront au développement de la production d’hydrogène « vert » c’est-à-dire non issu des hydrocarbures, en 2021-2022, pour des applications notamment industrielles. « Sur l’hydrogène, nous ne finançons pas l’achat d’hydrogène, nous finançons la réalisation de produits industriels, par exemple de piles à combustibles (...), de réseaux de distribution », a expliqué le ministre de l’Économie.

La Commission européenne,quant à elle, a fait du développement de cet hydrogène propre au sein de l'UE un investissement prioritaire après la crise sanitaire, afin de décarboner les secteurs les plus polluants comme la sidérurgie et les transports, dans la course vers la neutralité climatique en 2050.

Décarboner les secteurs les plus polluants

Pour l’heure, au niveau industriel, l’hydrogène qui est produit n’est pas vert. Bien au contraire, il est issu de la combustion d’énergies fossiles (à 94% en France, et dans des proportions similaires ailleurs dans le monde), en grande majorité du charbon et du gaz naturel.

Si son bilan carbone est très négatif, sur le plan industriel, l’hydrogène fait rêver sous forme de gaz ou de liquide: il peut servir de carburant à des véhicules qui ne rejettent alors que de l’eau, à fabriquer de l’acier sans utiliser d’énergie fossile (or la sidérurgie représente près de 10% des émissions mondiales de CO2), à stocker de l’électricité produite par des éoliennes ou des panneaux photovoltaïques (puisque le soleil ne brille pas 24 heures sur 24, cela permet de stocker l’énergie produite le jour sous forme d’hydrogène et de la restituer ensuite)..

Il fait  sans conteste un parfait outil vers la transition écologique tant souhaitée. « L’hydrogène peut devenir l’un des piliers d’un modèle énergétique neutre en carbone. Cette molécule, qui renferme énormément d’énergie, va devenir indispensable compte tenu de l’étendue de ses propriétés : elle permet de stocker l’électricité, d’alimenter des voitures, de recycler du CO2, de rendre les processus industriels plus propres, etc. » C’était le discours de Nicolas Hulot, en juin 2018. Il était alors ministre de la Transition écologique et solidaire et présentait son plan de déploiement de l’hydrogène pour la transition énergétique.

Le contre-exemple du photovoltaïque

Objectif affiché: doper la recherche et l’industrie européenne dans ce domaine face à la concurrence à bas coût étrangère. « Nous ne refaisons pas avec l’hydrogène l’erreur que nous avons faite avec les panneaux photovoltaïques (...) on a tué l’industrie du panneau solaire européenne et subventionné l’industrie du panneau solaire chinois: il est hors de question qu’on refasse la même chose », a mis en garde Bruno Le Maire.

Après une crise sanitaire sans précédent le plan de relance économique présenté par le Gouvernement ce jeudi 3 septembre 2020 renvoie l’hydrogène sur le devant de la scène.

« Le plan Hulot s’appuyait, a priori, sur 100 millions d’euros de financements. Celui-là promet 2 milliards d’euros d’ici fin 2022 et 7 milliards d’euros d’ici 2030 pour le développement d’un hydrogène vert. C’est sans commune mesure et un changement d’échelle décisif », commente Marc Florette, membre de l’Académie des technologies, pour Futura.

Un défi à relever trés vite  !

Joanne Courbet pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Le gouvernement a dévoilé ce jeudi 3 septembre 2020 son plan de relance pour tenter d'enrayer les effets de la crise sanitaire sur l'économie française. Il doit non seulement permettre de protéger l'activité et l'emploi à court terme, mais aussi préparer la France à faire face aux défis économiques en 2030.

Quatre fois plus d'argent qu'après la crise de 2008

Sur le papier, le plan baptisé « France Relance » promet 100 milliards d'euros sur 2020, 2021 et 2022, avec l'essentiel des sommes débloquées à partir de l'année prochaine. Cela représente 4 points de PIB, soit « quatre fois plus » que ce qui avait été fait après la crise financière de 2008, se félicite-t-on à Matignon.

À crise exceptionnelle, remède exceptionnel

Selon le gouvernement, c'est un plan inédit par son ampleur qui a pour but d'accélérer la transition écologique et de relocaliser ou développer les compétences françaises. Une somme importante qui nécessite plusieurs sources de financement. Cette somme importante va avoir plusieurs sources : 40 milliards d'euros de la part de l'Union européenne, dans le cadre du plan de relance accepté par Bruxelles, mais également des emprunts ainsi qu'une mise à contribution de la Caisse des dépôts et consignations.. Concernant le financement de ce plan de relance, Jean Castex a affirmé qu'il « n'y aura pas de hausse d'impôts ».

« Nous ne reproduirons pas l'erreur de procéder à des hausses de fiscalité qui affaibliraient notre croissance et enverrait des signaux négatifs aux ménages comme aux entreprises », a-t-il justifié jeudi en conférence de presse.

« Le plan de relance de 100 milliards tout rond relève d'une communication bien huilée », selon François Ecalle, magistrat de la Cour des comptes en disponibilité... « Il faudra regarder dans les documents budgétaires annexés à la loi de finances 2021 pour voir de quoi il retourne exactement. Dans le ferroviaire, par exemple, ils le disent eux-mêmes : des dépenses déjà prévues sont intégrées au plan de relance… Il y a un peu de prestidigitation. », poursuit-il.

Moderniser l'appareil productif

L'exécutif affirme vouloir faire le pari de moderniser enfin l'appareil productif français grâce à l'opportunité ouverte de dépenser sans trop compter, vu le contexte économique international et le soutien massif de la Banque centrale européenne (BCE).

La baisse de prélèvements pour les entreprises de 10 milliards d'euros par an sera toutefois la seule mesure budgétaire pérenne. Celles-ci vont bénéficier d'une diminution des impôts dits de « production », c'est-à-dire ceux qui pèsent sur leurs comptes, même si elles ne parviennent pas à dégager du profit. L'exécutif a choisi de diviser par deux la contribution à la valeur ajoutée des entreprises (CVAE) pour la partie qui revient au budget des régions, lesquelles auront droit à une compensation, normalement intégrale, soit 7,25 milliards d'euros. Les entreprises industrielles bénéficieront aussi d'une baisse de leur cotisation foncière (CFE) et sur le foncier bâti.

Bercy estime que ces baisses d'impôts iront en priorité aux entreprises de taille intermédiaire (pour 42 %), qui font tant défaut par rapport à leurs concurrentes allemandes, mais aussi aux PME (32 %). Le reste, pour 26 %, irait aux grandes entreprises.

35 milliards d'euros pour la compétitivité des entreprises et l'innovation

En tout, ce sont 35 milliards d'euros qui seront dédiés à la compétitivité des entreprises et à l'innovation, affirme Bercy. L'État veut impulser, via le programme d'investissement d'avenir lancé à la fin du mandat de Nicolas Sarkozy et poursuivi sous François Hollande, des investissements « dans des secteurs qui tireront notre croissance de demain ». Ainsi onze milliards d'euros sur deux ans sont prévus, notamment pour développer une filière de la voiture à hydrogène (2 milliards d'euros) et décarboner les grands sites industriels. Un milliard d'euros de plus seraient aussi dégagés pour soutenir l'investissement des entreprises dans les zones labellisées « territoires d'industrie » (400 millions d'euros) et sous forme d'aides à la relocalisation (600 millions d'euros) dans les secteurs stratégiques, comme le médicament.

Pour permettre aux entreprises fragilisées de traverser la crise, l'État va mettre 3 milliards d'euros de garanties sur la table pour permettre de lever, via l'intermédiation des banques, entre 15 et 20 milliards d'euros de « quasi-fonds propres » pour éviter leur étranglement par la dette accumulée pendant le confinement.

Si l'Etat a voulu miser gros sur la modernisation de l'appareil productif français à proprement parler, il veut aussi mettre le paquet sur la transition écologique.

Transition écologique

Une enveloppe de 30 milliards d'euros est annoncée pour y parvenir. Transports, bâtiment, énergie, industrie et agriculture sont concernés.

Onze milliards d'euros sont prévus pour les « mobilités », dont 4,7 pour le ferroviaire (petites lignes, trains de nuit, fret). La désignation des petites lignes concernées dépendra de la négociation avec les régions. Pour les transports en commun «du quotidien» et le soutien au vélo, 1,2 milliard d'euros est prévu.

En ce qui concerne le bâtiment, 4 milliards d'euros devraient permettre de rénover le bâti public, notamment les écoles, les collèges, les lycées et les hôpitaux, mais aussi celui de l'État. Les ménages, eux, vont bénéficier de 2 milliards d'euros au travers de Ma Prime Renov étendue même aux plus aisés d'entre eux. Enfin, 1,2 milliard d'euros sera consacré à «des aides pour une alimentation plus saine, plus locale, plus durable».

35 milliards d'euros pour « la cohésion sociale et territoriale »

Un dernier volet du plan est destiné à « la cohésion sociale et territoriale », pour 35 milliards d'euros. Sous cet intitulé un peu fourre-tout se cache l'enveloppe programmée pour protéger l'emploi via le dispositif de chômage partiel de longue durée (6,6 milliards d'euros), notamment dans les secteurs les plus impactés par la crise, tels que celui du secteur aérien. Un milliard d'euros de plus devra financer la formation des salariés concernés dans les secteurs d'avenir identifiés dans France Relance.

Ce volet met l'accent sur le renforcement des formations vers les secteurs de la transition écologique et numérique ainsi que sur les métiers du soin (« care ») notamment.

Entre 30 et 40 % de ce plan devraient être effectifs dès 2021, au travers du vote de la loi de finances d'ici à la fin de l'année

Un très rapide retour sur investissement espéré

À travers ce plan, le gouvernement espère créer un climat de confiance dans l'avenir qui suffise à débloquer au moins en partie les dizaines de milliards d'euros d'épargne accumulés jusqu'à présent. Et se fixe comme objectif, avec son plan de relance, conforme au montant recommandé par le Conseil d'analyse économique de 50 milliards d'euros sur une année, de revenir au niveau de PIB

Le ministre de l'Économie Bruno Le Maire a pour sa part affirmé que ce plan de relance va permettre que la France « ressorte plus forte de la crise », alors que Jean Castex prévoit que l'effet sur la dette sera « presque entièrement résorbé à partir de 2025 ». « On en attend un très rapide retour sur investissement », a déclaré le chef du gouvernement, alors que la crise provoquée par l'épidémie de coronavirus va faire bondir la dette publique à près de 121% du PIB cette année.Le but est de revenir en 2022 au niveau d'avant crise. Alors qu'une récession de 11% est prévue cette année, certains considèrent cependant que cela relèverait de l'exploit.

Ce que le gouvernement dit vouloir avec ce plan, c'est préparer la France du futur.

Jean Castex a rappelé trois priorités : « le verdissement de notre économie, la cohésion sociale et territoriale et rendre la France plus compétitive et plus souveraine ».

« La France sortira plus forte de la crise économique, avec une économie plus compétitive, plus solidaire, plus décarbonnée  », a promis Bruno Lemaire.

Et avec "un peu de prestidigitation aussi" ?

Joanne Courbet pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Le coronavirus, pour lequel aucun vaccin n’a encore été trouvé, continue de circuler activement, alimentant les craintes d’une seconde vague aux enjeux économiques et sociétaux potentiellement désastreux.

Plus de 16,5 millions de personnes ont été contaminées depuis la fin 2019 – dont près de 5 millions depuis le 1er juillet si bien, qu'après des mesures de déconfinement en Europe , de nombreuses restrictions se multiplient à nouveau pour tenter de freiner la pandémie de Covid-19.

Les autorités françaises ont ordonné la fermeture de lieux de rassemblement comme les plages, les parcs et les jardins publics la nuit dans la ville touristique de Quiberon, sur l’Atlantique. Selon le bilan établi lundi soir par la Direction générale de la santé, l’épidémie a fait dix-sept morts supplémentaires depuis vendredi en France et la circulation du virus reste « soutenue ».

L’Espagne, quant à elle, fait face à un important rebond du nombre d’infections, incitant certaines villes à se reconfiner comme Barcelone ainsi que la région de Madrid à prendre ce mardi de nouvelles mesures, comme le renforcement du caractère obligatoire du port du masque et la limitation des rassemblements à dix personnes. Le gouvernement allemand a d'ailleurs déconseillé, mardi, les voyages « non essentiels » vers les régions espagnoles d’Aragon, de Catalogne et de Navarre en raison du « nombre élevé d’infections ».Depuis dimanche, la Grande-Bretagne soumet, elle, les passagers en provenance d’Espagne à une période d’isolement, une mesure critiquée par Madrid qui a riposté en assurant être un « pays sûr ».

En Allemagne, l’Institut de veille sanitaire Robert-Koch (RKI) s’est alarmé, mardi, de l’augmentation des nouvelles infections dans le pays depuis plusieurs jours (+ 557 par jour en moyenne depuis une semaine), source de « grandes inquiétudes ». Le RKI a conseillé le port du masque à l’extérieur si la distanciation physique s’avérait impossible à respecter. Pour le RKI, les voyages à l’étranger sont également en partie responsables du retour relatif de la pandémie. la

Un nouveau durcissement des mesures a été pris en Belgique face à une recrudescence inquiétante des contaminations. A partir de mercredi, le nombre de personnes que les Belges sont autorisés à voir de façon rapprochée et régulière dans le cadre de leur « bulle de contact » sera notamment abaissé de quinze à cinq personnes, par foyer, pour les quatre prochaines semaines.

De son côté, la Grèce a annoncé mardi qu’elle rendait à nouveau le port du masque obligatoire dans les magasins, les banques, les services publics et la quasi-totalité des lieux clos, en réponse à une recrudescence des cas.

Jenny Chase pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Si le redémarrage de l’économie continue d’avoir des incidences positives sur le marché du travail, il est difficile, pour autant, de parler d’amélioration.

Recul du nombre de chômeurs de catégorie A en juin.

En juin, le nombre de demandeurs d’emploi sans aucune activité (catégorie A) a baissé, sur l’ensemble du territoire , de près de 205 000, selon les données diffusées, lundi 27 juillet, par Pôle emploi et par la direction du ministère du travail chargée des études (Dares). Il s’agit d’un nouveau recul, de 4,6 %, qui se révèle encore plus fort que celui relevé le mois précédent (– 3,3 %).

La baisse en catégorie A concerne toutes les tranches d'âge : les moins de 25 ans (-4,6%), les 25-49 ans (-5%) et les 50 ans ou plus (-3,7%) .Plus forte chez les hommes (-5,8%) que chez les femmes (-3,3%), elle a été plus marquée sur la façade ouest (-6,9% en Bretagne), ainsi qu'en PACA et en Corse (-7,5%).

Ce recul en juin « est plus particulièrement porté par la baisse du nombre de ceux qui recherchent un métier dans la construction et le BTP, ainsi que dans l'hôtellerie et le tourisme », conséquence de la reprise de l'activité autorisée dans ces deux derniers secteurs en juin, souligne la Dares, le service statistique du ministère du Travail.

Une hausse historique sur le dernier trimestre

Pour autant, les effectifs des personnes dans cette situation se maintiennent à un niveau très élevé, à 4,22 millions. Depuis la mise en place, en 1996, de cette série statistique, jamais la barre des 4 millions d’inscrits dans la catégorie A n’avait été franchie, ce qui montre l’ampleur des ravages causés par la crise due au nouveau coronavirus.

 Le nombre d’individus à la recherche d’un poste tout en ayant travaillé (catégories B et C) a, de son côté, continué d’augmenter fortement en juin (+ 13,9 %), soit une progression presque aussi soutenue qu’en mai (+ 14,2 %). Au total, les rangs des demandeurs d’emploi, en activité ou non (catégories A, B et C), s’étoffent encore pour atteindre désormais 6,157 millions, un record depuis 1996. La hausse des entrées s'explique notamment par les retours de formation et les premières entrées sur le marché du travail (+41%). Les inscriptions pour licenciement économique restent faibles à 9 900 et quasi-stables.

Sur le deuxième trimestre, d’avril à juin, la hausse du chômage reste donc sans précédent : elle augmente de 23,2 % en catégorie A  et de 6,5 % pour les catégories A, B et C.

Carl Delsey pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Une étude d'Euler Hermes dresse un scénario catastrophe qui devrait se produire entre la fin 2020 et le premier semestre 2021 avec en moyenne un bond de 35% des défaillances.

La vague tant redoutée de faillites en cascades devrait se produire entre la fin 2020 et le premier semestre 2021 selon une étude d'Euler Hermes avec une hausse record de +35% en moyenne des défaillances dans le monde. Les mesures de soutien étatiques aux entreprises tout comme le gel des procédures d'enregistrement des faillites décalent dans le temps les défaillances.

Parmi les pays les plus touchés figurent en tête les Etats-Unis avec une hausse de 57% des faillites devant le Brésil avec +45% et +20% en Chine.

En Europe, ce sont le Royaume-Uni et l’Espagne qui verront le plus d’entreprises mettre la clé sous la porte avec respectivement +45% et +41% surtout en 2021, selon Euler Hermes.

+25% en France. Certains pays comme la Suède, l'Irlande, l'Italie et le Portugal seront touchés de plein fouet dès 2020 par cette vague qui atteindra surtout l'année prochaine d'autres Etats comme la France, le Royaume-Uni ou l'Allemagne.

« En France, la vague de défaillances arrivera au quatrième trimestre 2020 et se prolongera sur le premier semestre 2021 », prédit l'assureur-crédit qui indique que les reports de charges et les prêts garantis par l'Etat d'une part, les fermetures de tribunaux de commerce et les gels des procédures collectives d'autre part ont retardé son arrivée.

Concrètement, l'étude estime que la France connaîtra 53.600 faillites en 2020 et 64.300 en 2021.  « En matière de volume, un triste record sera prochainement atteint », anticipe Euler Hermes.

Ce sont  les entreprises de taille intermédiaire  qui risquent d'être le plus touchées en France.

Le scénario catastrophe pourrait même devenir apocalyptique. Un arrêt prématuré des mesures de soutien pourrait aggraver la situation. Si l’économie mondiale devait mettre plus de temps que prévu à se remettre du choc, la hausse des défaillances pourrait même dépasser les 50%.

L'assureur-crédit Coface avait de son côté estimé début juin que les défaillances d'entreprises allaient augmenter d'un tiers entre 2019 et 2021 à travers le monde, et de 21% en France.

Andrew Preston pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



"Les problèmes causés et révélés par le Covid-19 ne peuvent être résolus par la charité, aussi généreuse soit-elle", plaident des millionnaires dans une lettre.«Les problèmes causés et révélés par le Covid-19 ne peuvent être résolus par la charité, aussi généreuse soit-elle.

Les chefs de gouvernement doivent prendre la responsabilité de lever les fonds dont nous avons besoin et les dépenser équitablement» pour financer «adéquatement nos systèmes de santé, les écoles et la sécurité via une augmentation permanente des taxes sur la plus fortunés de la planète, des gens comme nous».

Un groupe de 83 millionnaires a ainsi appelé lundi à taxer davantage les plus riches de la planète «immédiatement» et «de manière permanente», afin de contribuer à la reprise après la crise générée par la pandémie de nouveau coronavirus.

Une récession historique

La pandémie de coronavirus a entraîné une récession historique à travers le monde, poussant les gouvernements à dépenser des milliards en aides aux ménages et entreprises frappés de plein fouet par la paralysie économique résultant du confinement.

Selon l'OCDE, le recul du produit intérieur brut mondial devrait atteindre au moins 6% cette année, et 7,6% en cas de deuxième vague épidémique, tandis que le rebond attendu pour 2021 serait de 5,2% sans retour du coronavirus, et de 2,8% avec.

« Un rôle essentiel à jouer pour guérir le monde »

«Alors que le Covid-19 frappe le monde, les millionnaire comme nous avons un rôle essentiel à jouer pour guérir le monde», demandent les signataires d'une lettre ouverte, parmi lesquels le cofondateur du géant américain des glaces Ben & Jerry's, Jerry Greenfield, ou le réalisateur britannique Richard Curtis.

Cette lettre, publiée avant la réunion des ministres des Finances du G20 et du sommet européen extraordinaire sur la relance de l'UE cette semaine, appelle les «gouvernements à augmenter les taxes de gens comme nous. Immédiatement, substantiellement et de manière permanente».

« Nous avons de l'argent, beaucoup»

«Nous ne sommes pas ceux qui soignent les malades dans les unités de soins intensifs. Nous ne conduisons pas les ambulances qui amènent les malades à l'hôpital. Nous ne sommes pas ceux qui regarnissent les rayons des épiceries ou qui délivrent de la nourriture de porte à porte», écrit ce groupe qui se baptise Millionaires for Humanity, sur un site internet éponyme.

«Mais nous avons de l'argent, beaucoup. On a absolument besoin d'argent maintenant et on continuera à en avoir besoin dans les années à venir» pour se remettre de la crise, dont l'impact «durera des dizaines d'années» et pourrait «pousser un demi-milliard de personnes dans la pauvreté».

Il y a un an, un petit groupe de milliardaires américains comprenant l'homme d'affaires George Soros, le co-fondateur de Facebook Chris Hughes et des héritiers des empires Hyatt et Disney entre autres, avaient également publié une lettre pour soutenir l'idée d'un impôt sur la fortune

Depuis des années, des milliardaires tels que Warren Buffett et Bill Gates demandent à être taxés davantage.

Carl Delsey pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Chaque année depuis un quart de siècle, le magazine Challenges recense les 500 plus grosses fortunes de France. Voici le classement des cinq premiers de cordée de cette année 2020 .

La première place revient comme en 2019 à Bernard Arnault, qui fut l'homme le plus riche du monde avant d'être coiffé au poteau par le patron d'Amazon Jeff Bezos, et Bill Gates. Avec une fortune estimée à 100 milliards d'euros, le PDG de LVMH conforte toutefois sa place de numéro un en France.

Sur la deuxième marche du podium arrive la famille Hermes, forte d'un patrimoine avoisinant les 55,5 milliards d'euros.

Enfin, la troisième marche du podium est occupée par Alain et Gérard Wertheimer, à la tête de l'empire Channel, et leur famille (53 milliards d'euros)

Françoise Bettencourt-Meyers, petite-fille du fondateur de L'Oréal, arrive en 4ème position grâce à une fortune estimée à 51 milliards d'euros. Elle a dû céder sa médaille de bronze, remportée en 2019.

La 5e place revient à l'homme d'affaires François Pinault (propriétaire du Point) et sa famille (32 milliards d'euros).

Alyson Braxton pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


C'est une découverte pour le moins inquiétante, alors que la pandémie de coronavirus sévit dans le monde entier. Selon une étude parue ce lundi dans la revue scientifique américaine PNAS, des chercheurs ont découvert une souche de virus de grippe porcine en Chine présentant toutes les caractéristiques capables de provoquer une future pandémie.

Les virus s'appellent G4 et descendent génétiquement de la souche H1N1 à l'origine d'une pandémie en 2009 : ils « possèdent tous les traits essentiels montrant une haute adaptabilité pour infecter les humains », écrivent les auteurs, des scientifiques issus d'universités chinoises et du Centre chinois de prévention et de lutte contre les maladies.

Des ouvriers infectés

Le travail présenté est volumineux : de 2011 à 2018, 30 000 prélèvements nasaux ont été réalisés sur des porcs dans les abattoirs de 10 provinces chinoises et dans un hôpital vétérinaire, permettant d'isoler 179 virus de grippe porcine. La majorité était de la nouvelle variété, qui est devenue dominante chez les porcs depuis 2016. Les chercheurs ont ensuite réalisé diverses expériences en laboratoire et sur des furets, des animaux très utilisés dans la recherche sur la grippe car leurs symptômes sont comparables à ceux des humains : ils ont de la fièvre, toussent et éternuent.

Ils ont observé que les virus G4 étaient plus infectieux, se répliquaient dans des cellules humaines et provoquaient chez les furets des symptômes plus graves que d'autres souches. En outre, selon des tests in vitro, l'immunité obtenue après contact avec les virus humains de la grippe saisonnière ne protégerait pas contre le G4.

L'autre mauvaise nouvelle est que les ouvriers et personnes travaillant avec les porcs étaient relativement nombreux à avoir été infectés, 10,4 %, selon des tests sanguins qui ont cherché la présence d'anticorps au virus. 4,4 % de la population générale apparaissait également contaminée. Le virus serait donc déjà passé chez les humains, rapportent les scientifiques, mais il n'y a pas de preuve qu'il peut être transmis d'humain à humain. C'est aujourd'hui leur crainte.

Une surveillance de population exigée

« Les pandémies se produisent quand des virus de grippe A avec un nouvel antigène de surface HA devient capable de se transmettre d'humain à humain », concluent les chercheurs. « L'inquiétude est que les infections d'humains par les virus G4 ne mènent à une adaptation humaine et n'augmentent le risque d'une pandémie humaine ». Il faut urgemment, disent-ils, mettre en place une surveillance des populations travaillant au contact des porcs.

« Les travaux sont un rappel salutaire que nous courons constamment le risque de l'émergence de pathogènes zoonotiques, et que des animaux d'élevage, avec qui les humains sont plus en contact qu'avec des animaux sauvages, soient la source de virus pandémiques importants », a commenté James Wood, chef du département de médecine vétérinaire à l'université de Cambridge.

Emily Jackson pour DayNewsWorld


The coronavirus crisis will not have spared anyone. While it was the market leader, the Spanish group Inditex (Zara, Massimo Dutti, Pull & Bear, etc.) published quarterly results which fell sharply.

Figures far below expectations for the first time since its IPO in 2001. The parent company of the Zara brand is currently experiencing a record sales drop (44%).

Consumers have not been in a rush in shops since deconfinement.

The first figures already show a drop in attendance of 59.8% compared to the same period in 2019.

A new strategy: online sales

To cope with this heavy toll, the Spanish fast-fashion giant has announced that it will close 1,200 stores worldwide, or 16% of its sales outlets. Its Zara brands are therefore targeted, as well as Zara Home, Massimo Dutti, Oysho and even Stradivarius.

Now the Spanish label intends to bet more on its e-commerce by devoting an additional 2.7 billion euros, its sales having doubled in recent months. The group has already set its objectives.

By 2022, the owner of Zara is targeting 25% of its turnover through online sales compared to 14% so far.

In an article published on June 10, the benchmark media Business of Fashion analyzed how the exodus from the metropolises was going to reshape sales in stores.

In the article, Doug Stephens of Retail Prophet explains that the telecommuting revolution will accelerate the advent of a post-digital era for shopping.

“We don't build our lives around the retail business. Retail is built around our lives, "concludes BoF article".

Alyson Braxton for DayNewsWorld



The world economy will suffer its worst recession in peacetime this past 100 years before returning to growth next year, the OECD estimates on Wednesday.

Due to the “exceptional uncertainty” of the economy this year, the OECD presents its forecasts taking into account two scenarios. One with a second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic spreading across the planet in late 2020, the other without. In the first case, the most unfavorable, the contraction of the world economy would be 7.6% this year and the recovery in 2021 at 2.8%. In the second case, world GDP should contract by 6.0% this year before rebounding by 5.2% in 2021.

According to OECD projections, the United States, the world's largest economic power, must prepare for a contraction of 7.3% of its GDP this year before a rebound of 4.1% next year. In the event of a second wave, the recession would be 8.5% this year, and US GDP would only regain 1.9% in 2021.

China, still championing growth last year with 6.1%, will also see its economy contract, by 2.6%, or even 3.7% this year if the virus resurfaces massively.

The eurozone is moving towards a contraction of 9.1% this year, followed by a recovery of 6.5% next year. In the scenario of a second wave, the decline would also be more marked (-11.5%) and the recovery more modest in 2021 (+ 3.5%).

France a brutal recession in 2020

According to the OECD, France will experience one of the largest drops in GDP in the world. The economic horizon of France and the countries of the euro zone is darkening a little more. According to forecasts by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), published Wednesday June 10, the contraction of gross domestic product (GDP) will be between 11.4% and 14.1% in 2020 in France.

The largest contraction in the world, in the same proportions as in Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. Even Argentina, which has just entered into default at the end of May, will fare better with an expected drop in GDP between 8.3% and 10.1%. It is in the euro zone that the dropout rate, between - 9.1% and - 11.5%, will be the most brutal on the planet.

The French economy has accumulated handicaps during this period. "Its comparative advantages lie in sectors among the most affected by the crisis such as air transport, tourism or even luxury," explains Daniel Cohen, director of the economics department of the École normale supérieure. And the Hexagon had no other solution than massive confinement, unlike Germany which had prepared for the pandemic earlier. "

States urged to go into debt to support workers

"By the end of 2021, the loss of income will exceed that recorded in all previous recessions of the past 100 years, with the exception of periods of war, with extreme and lasting consequences for populations, businesses and governments, ”said Laurence Boone, the chief economist of the OECD, in an introduction to these updated forecasts.

She therefore urges governments not to be afraid of resorting to debt to finance mechanisms to support the least paid workers and investments, explaining that the responses to the crisis will shape the economic and social outlook for the next ten years. .

"Ultra-accommodative monetary policies and higher public debt are necessary and will be accepted as long as economic activity and inflation remain depressed and unemployment remains high," she continues.

"Everywhere, confinement has reinforced the inequalities between workers", the most qualified able to telework while the young and the less qualified are "often on the front line" in the fight against the pandemic, notes the chief economist of the OECD. The Covid-19 also "accelerated the shift from a 'big integration' to a 'big fragmentation'" of the world economy with the appearance of "additional restrictions on trade and investment", according to Boone .

"Fairer and more sustainable" economy

To allow the economy to recover, the OECD notably recommends “strengthening health systems”, “facilitating changes in occupations while strengthening income protection”, and “making supply chains more resilient ”.

"Governments must seize this opportunity to design a fairer and more sustainable economy, make competition and regulations more intelligent, modernize taxation, spending and social protection," advocates Laurence Boone. It points to the essential role of confidence, without which neither consumption nor investment will restart.

And since the threat of a second wave of contagion keeps the uncertainty at a high level, Laurence Boone adds that the moment is certainly not to stir up the flames of trade tensions and that governments must cooperate in research and development of treatments and a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

"Until a vaccine or treatment becomes widely available, policymakers around the world will continue to walk a tightrope," she writes.

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld



During the outbreak of coronavirus seems "controlled" in France, the economic consequences will announce unprecedented.

The government further exacerbated its forecast for recession this week, with a historic gross domestic product (GDP) drop of 11%.

In addition, according to a note from the French Observatory of Economic Conditions (OFCE), an independent research organization, published on Friday June 5, 2020, the French economy was undoubtedly one of the most affected by the health crisis.

According to this note, which studies the impact of Covid-19 on the month of April, when many countries confined their populations, the world economy experienced a recession of 19% that month, while trade global fell 25%.

“We can classify countries in the world in three categories. We have the countries of southern Europe, the other developed countries and the countries of the rest of the world and the Asian countries. In the first category, there are France, Italy and Spain. These are the countries that have been the most impacted ”, analyzes Eric Heyer, economist and deputy director of the OFCE, with a fall in their added value“ by more than 30 points ”.

Very bereaved, these three countries have in particular implemented strict confinement for more or less two months, with in particular the closure of non-essential businesses. In France, the deconfinement is done gradually since May 11.

Germany resists better

Conversely, the United States (-22 points) or Germany (-24 points) are doing a little less badly, while the emerging economies are more resilient at this stage (-15 points). As far as Asian and developing countries are concerned, "we see both a much smaller drop in consumption and investment, and then overall less integration in the production chains, thus an external impact which has much less of weight ”, according to the survey.

But this ranking is "extremely fragile" given the unprecedented nature of this crisis, warned Eric Heyer, director of the analysis and forecasting department at the OFCE during a press conference call.

These differences are explained both by the extent of the containment measures taken, which are slightly less across the Rhine and across the Atlantic, but also by the "sectoral structure" of the economies. Thus, Germany experienced an "extremely contained" internal shock but a much greater loss of external demand due to its industrial and open economy. France, for its part, is the victim of its exposure to tourism, with hotel and restaurant and trade sectors much larger than elsewhere. Jobs: France has limited the damage

Impact on employment

One of the great unknowns of this crisis will be its extent on employment, notes at this stage the OFCE, with "three issues", according to Xavier Timbeau, its director: the risks of business bankruptcies, the prolonged difficulties for certain sectors such as tourism and catering, and a too weak recovery in household consumption.

So far, however, the crisis has resulted in “relatively limited” job destruction due to massive public support for short-time working, with the exception of the United States, where job destruction could affect 22, 4 million jobs, and to a lesser extent from Germany where many “minijobs” have been cut.

France, where the state took charge of 100% of partial unemployment, or 84% of net wages or 100% of the minimum wage, for two months, and Italy would be the most spared with only 3% of salaried jobs hit by crisis.

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld


The management of the airline Ryanair has hit the headlines: it threatens to "fire 27 people" if the main union "does not quickly agree to accept lower wages".

The collapse of the Irish company's activity would require it. The majority union at Ryanair in France denounces "a blackmail at the dismissal" exercised by the Irish airline. Asked about this conflict, Bruno Le Maire said Tuesday that blackmail was "never a way" just like his colleague in charge of Labor, Muriel Pénicaud, said he was "shocked" and called Ryanair to "review his copy" , by bringing together its Social and Economic Committee (CSE) "urgently" to "really discuss, but not as blackmail".

The Minister of the Economy, however, recalled the existence of company agreements. "On the other hand, that there are long-term company agreements which make it possible to preserve employment, by inventing imaginative devices (..) that yes, it is even desirable", added the Minister.

Collective performance agreements

Faced with the threat of mass layoffs, the government is indeed encouraging more flexibility. “There are alternatives. I call on companies in difficulty to negotiate Collective Performance Agreements (APC) ”, hammered the Minister of Labor, Muriel Pénicaud, Sunday, May 31 on LCI.

Since 2017, a “performance agreement” system has enabled a company to open discussions on working time or remuneration, in return for a commitment not to lay off workers, or to raise wages again when the economic situation improves without jeopardizing the five weeks of paid leave or the minimum wages provided for in collective agreements.

But to be valid, a CPA must be approved by the majority union organizations. Employees are then forced to accept the principle, under penalty of dismissal. Since 2017, 350 agreements have been signed, concerning 67% of working time. But their number could explode in the current context with an emphasis this time on compensation.

Concretely therefore, the employee would accept a drop in his salary to keep his job. More and more companies weakened by the current context are considering this consideration. Like Derichebourg Aeronautics Services, a subcontractor for Airbus and Dassault. The company, which plans a social plan with 700 redundancies, has undertaken to reduce its scope if the employees agree to waive their transportation and / or meal allowance. FO, the majority union, accepted the principle.

Ryanair has offered its staff the choice between a salary cut for five years (-20% for pilots, -10% for hostesses and stewards from July 1) or a social plan that would affect a quarter of the workforce.

An option - widely used across the Rhine - that would save French jobs but decried by unionists who deplore that efforts are once again demanded of employees instead of shareholders.

Alize Marion pour DayNewsWorld


Never seen !

In 2019, France became the first destination for foreign investment in Europe, when the emergence of "yellow vests" had raised fears of a decline in its position on the Old Continent. The Hexagon has indeed recorded last year 1,197 projects of foreign establishments on its territory, a figure up by 17% compared to 2018. France is thus ahead of the United Kingdom and Germany, its historic competitors .

The head of state Macron did not skimp to attract foreign investors. The Choose France event, organized for the third time on a grand scale in Versailles, brought together in January 2020 no less than 200 business leaders from more than 40 different nationalities (from Netflix to YouTube, via Snapchat, Lime, BMW, Fedex or General Electric).

Economic reforms such as work orders, the transformation of the CICE into lower social charges for employers, visa facilities for tech entrepreneurs, etc. have shown that France is transforming into a “business friendly” country for investors. Foreign companies located in France now employ 2 million people, represent 21% of private R & D expenditure and 31% of our exports.

But the economic crisis caused by the Covid-19 risks reshuffling the cards.

The annual barometer produced by EY provides information on the state of mind of foreign investors today. According to EY's analysis, around 65% of the investments announced in 2019 (which number 1,200) would be maintained, 25% would be postponed or heavily revised and 10% canceled.

In addition, if investment projects should continue in certain “spared” sectors such as health, online leisure or e-commerce, they should however slow down considerably in the aeronautics, automotive, industrial equipment, chemicals and plastics, in particular for subcontractors.

The removal of containment and the recovery plan will obviously be two of the key challenges of the months to come to reassure investors, the firm believes.

But the case of Amazon, which closed its warehouses for several weeks following a court decision, that of the Renault factory in Sandouville, which the Havre court ordered provisional closure for procedural reasons, marked minds, and probably representatives of foreign companies based in France. “Be careful, France is now under surveillance.

Investors have only one fear, it is that France will forget the competitiveness package it had put in place and react to the crisis by imposing, for example, heavy and authoritarian counterparties on the inevitable safeguard plans of future employment, by increasing corporate taxation, slowing down the necessary adaptation of working time, etc. To do so would be a monumental mistake because investors need stability.

The competition for recovery is starting now and, if France moves towards less flexibility and returns to these old demons, our country will pay dearly for it. “, Emphasizes Marc Lhermitte, author of the study.

Alize Marion for DayNewsWorld



A near epidemic coronavirus that seems to ebb, the world caregivers will watch Monday on the launch of "Segur Health" broad consultation to improve their working conditions, their remuneration and the management of patients .

This major concertation, named after the avenue where the Ministry of Health is located, launched by Minister Olivier Véran, is to be completed "mid-July 2020".

It responds to the promise of Emmanuel Macron who had mentioned at the end of March "a massive investment and upgrading plan" for the hospital.

Career career enhancement

"The government must be up to what the hospital has given" to deal with the health crisis of Covid-19, said Frédéric Valletoux, president of the Hospital Federation of France (FHF).

“We must give recognition to nurses, caregivers, maintenance workers, by offering them a more decent remuneration, from the start of their career. This must be commensurate with their social utility. "

Arrested during a visit to the hospital, Emmanuel Macron promised to "put an end" to the "impoverishment" of caregivers, by initiating an increase in remuneration, in addition to the bonuses announced in the face of the Covid-19 crisis.

This gesture has been awaited for years by the unions, who point to the low hospital salaries, especially for nurses receiving 1,500 euros net at the start of their careers.

The executive also promised to put on the table of discussions the "question of skills upgrades", to better enhance all careers, all professions and develop new professional paths. The objective is to strengthen the attractiveness of hospitals, which struggle for many to recruit and retain their employees: nearly 30% of positions are not filled there and 30% of new graduate nurses leave the profession within five years. According to Frédéric Valletoux, it is also necessary "to reduce the pay gaps between public and private, which weaken hospitals"

Reorganization of working time

Olivier Véran said he wanted to "review the framework for organizing working time at the hospital, considering it necessary to question the" shackles that prevent those who wish to work more. "An announcement that made several unions jump, attached to 35 hours

The question is not to "deregulate working hours," said the Minister of Health, however, saying he wanted to simply allow "employees who wish" to organize "their working hours differently". This reform corresponds to a long-standing request from the Fédération hospitalière de France (FHF), which advocates new governance of the health system with less administration, more weight given to doctors and a “device of autonomy” for hospitals.

Better care management

The executive could also reform activity pricing (T2A) a little more, introduced in 2003. This system, which fixes hospital resources according to the acts performed, is often accused of pushing for a “rush to volume” . It could also put an end to the closings of beds, much criticized by hospitals: in the space of twenty years, nearly 100,000 beds have indeed been deleted in clinics and hospitals.

A massive investment plan

At the end of March, Emmanuel Macron had promised "a massive investment plan" at the end of the crisis. This plan is intended in particular to renew the equipment both in hospitals and in nursing homes. The French Hospital Federation claims for its part to increase investment in hospitals by "two billion per year".

The issue of hospital debt, now close to 30 billion euros, could also come back on the table. As part of the "hospital plan" decided in autumn 2019, the government had announced a "massive" debt recovery of 10 billion euros over three years.

"We will go fast, we will go strong. Promised Olivier Véran who seems to have understood the urgency of the situation.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



The economy suffered heavily from the health crisis caused by the Covid-19 epidemic which highlighted its shortcomings In the short term, unemployment and, as Prime Minister Edouard Philippe said, "impoverishment" which is looming for a part of the population question the organization of working time and the fiscal choices of the quinquennium.

The government must therefore find a balance between the need for a short-term recovery and the ambition to transform the French economy. Given the magnitude of the shock, some believe that the next economy will no longer be like the one before. And as of March 12, Emmanuel Macron had promised "breaking decisions".

Tax more

If Emmanuel Macron had abolished the wealth tax for the wealthiest at the start of his five-year term, hoping to see them finance the economy, the expenses incurred by the State to cushion the crisis revive the debate on a reinstatement of wealth tax (ISF), replaced in 2018 by the property wealth tax (IFI). He is demanded by the left and the National Rally. A sort of “war tax”, for the number one of the PCF Fabien Roussel. "Political power will find it difficult to escape it in one way or another", also judged the former social adviser of Nicolas Sarkozy, Raymond Soubie, referring more broadly to the taxation of capital. For Medef boss Geoffroy Roux de Bézieux, this would however be "a very bad signal".Directing the consequent savings of French people towards companies could also be considered

Work more

How to revive production after two months of confinement and with companies in a fragile financial situation? The bad numbers of job seekers have arrived, growth forecasts plunge (–6 points of GDP for the two months of containment) and the jobs crisis is looming so that the eternal debate has rebounded in favor of the coronavirus crisis. How then can we give work to the hundreds of thousands of people who will be unemployed by the crisis?

On the right, the proposals are multiplying. Christian Jacob, the president of LR, pleads to “get out of the shackles of 35 hours”, and his party is working on a recovery plan, with in particular the contributions of the former Minister of Budget Eric Woerth. "We have to get out of the shackles of 35 hours (...) The question of working time will have to be asked in the context of social dialogue, but at the level of the company or in the branches, not of the State", he has Monday on France Inter.

And he preaches on a case-by-case basis. “We can very well do this within the framework of the annualization of working time and to do it by company, as close as possible to reality, and in social negotiation between employees and the company manager. (...) This would allow employees to have an increase in wages and therefore purchasing power, and to restore competitiveness to businesses. (...) "

"In some sectors, demand may be sustained, but health constraints cause productivity to drop: this is where the question of working more can arise," said Geoffroy Roux de Bézieux. He had previously mentioned a reduction in days off or holidays to "facilitate, by working a little more, the creation of additional growth".

But longer working hours are not on the agenda for Laurent Berger. "If we think that we are going to get out of it positively by promising sweat and tears, we are in the mad," he said in the weekly La Vie. Rather than wanting to lengthen the duration of the working time, "we must learn to work differently and to work better", he argues, particularly worried about the situation of young people. The CGT also remains committed to 32 hours.

For now, the government is focusing above all on a return to work. "The problem of the day is getting back to work and saving jobs," said Labor Minister Muriel Pénicaud. For her, companies already have room for maneuver negotiable with their employees, in particular the quota of 200 overtime hours without social security contributions, which is still very little used.

In companies, unions and management can conclude "collective performance" agreements to renegotiate working time and compensation of employees in the event of difficulties, said Labor Minister Muriel Pénicaud.

Green growth

For environmentalists, the recovery plans are an opportunity to launch the transition to a low-carbon economy that we have struggled to initiate so far.

Even the Minister of Economy Bruno Le Maire believes that France must become the “first low-carbon economy on the planet”, by investing in electric vehicles, the renovation of buildings… The Minister of Economy notably mentioned this Monday May 18, 2020, a new bonus for the purchase of a green vehicle.

The recovery plan that he will present at the start of the school year and specific support for the automobile and aeronautics sectors could materialize this ambition, with environmental compensation claimed from industrialists. Besides, the State loan of 7 billion to Air France has been conditioned on an ecological commitment. “Air France must become the most environmentally friendly company on the planet. This is the condition to which I am most attached. ”, Bruno Le Maire said on April 24, 2020.

But some economic circles are calling for a break in the application of new environmental rules, the time to overcome the crisis. Especially since the free fall in the price of fossil fuels - black gold has abandoned almost 70% and coal prices have been halved - could argue in this direction ...

Relocate production

Shortage of masks, of drugs: the epidemic has led the executive to want to defend greater economic independence in key sectors, such as health. "The next day will not be like the day before, we must rebuild our national and European sovereignty, "said President Emmanuel Macron.

Bruno Le Maire thus asked car manufacturers to "relocate certain productions" in return for public support. Pharmaceutical companies are reflecting more than ever on the need to relocate production, in particular that of so-called "essential" drugs so as to no longer depend solely on China and India. Philippe Aghion, professor of economics at the Collège de France, pleads for the creation of a "European Darpa", inspired by the research funding agency of the American Pentagon, for a "real European investment policy, with a long term vision ”. "Not necessarily at 27", but at least with Germany, which has lost far fewer industrial jobs than France.

But relocating factories to France could prove difficult, while competitiveness will remain essential for industries weakened by the crisis. "A relocation movement cannot start without thinking about our competitiveness and our production costs", warned the president of Medef on Twitter.

The fact remains that this cannot be done without new investments, when the public authorities have already poured hundreds of billions of euros to save the European economic fabric during the confinement.

Jenny Chase for DayNewsWorld


The wrong numbers of job seekers arrived, growth forecasts plunge (-6 percentage points of GDP for the two months of confinement) and the jobs crisis is looming so that theeternal debate brought honor to favor of the coronavirus crisis.

On working time, it was the Medef that first fired through the voice of its president, Geoffroy Roux de Bézieux "The important thing is to restart the economic machine and reproduce mass wealth , to try to erase, from 2021, the growth losses of 2020 ", he asserted on April 14, after a month of confinement by proposing to limit leave in particular and by extending the working time of employees to support recovery.

Drastic measures

Last week, several liberal think tanks put the idea back on the carpet, to get out, according to them, of this "collapse of the economy", according to a term used by the government. The Montaigne Institute, in a report, "Rebounding against the covid 19", thus places the whole question around "the issue of working time".

Behind the idea of ​​working more, that of "acting on supply, that is to say on the activity of companies, in order to facilitate their resumption of activity", productivity having decreased "due to the reduction of social interactions and the disorganization of production chains ”. It is therefore necessary, believes in his note the economist Bertrand Martinot, "to soften some persistent legal obstacles" by allowing companies to "derogate from the minimum daily rest time of 11 hours minimum per day as part of an agreement on the right upon disconnection ".

Other avenues: delete vacations and a public holiday, ensure that employee training is no longer carried out during their working time or encourage an increase in working time, without paying the corresponding additional remuneration at once.

For Ifrap, the Foundation for research on administrations and public policies, the dogma of "working more" is also obvious to save companies and avoid layoffs.

An old hand in social relations in France, and a former social advisor to Nicolas Sarkozy, Raymond Soubie was even surprised to see "no one anticipating" social plans and the situation of companies that will face "durably reduced markets".

He predicts the disappearance of "tens of thousands, and probably hundreds of thousands of jobs". So much so that he recommends reviewing "urgently". the rules of the social plans for the companies most in difficulty, and for the others to pass agreements providing for efforts by companies on employment in exchange for efforts of employees on working time.

A political debate

On the right, the proposals are multiplying. Christian Jacob, the president of LR, pleads to “get out of the shackles of 35 hours”, and his party is working on a recovery plan, with in particular the contributions of the former Minister of Budget Eric Woerth. "We have to get out of the shackles of 35 hours (...) The question of working time will have to be asked within the framework of social dialogue, but at the level of the company or in the branches, not of the State", he has Monday on France Inter.

And he preaches on a case-by-case basis. “We can very well do this within the framework of the annualization of working time and to do it by company, as close as possible to reality, and in social negotiation between employees and the company manager. (...) This would allow employees to have an increase in wages and therefore purchasing power, and to restore competitiveness to businesses. (...) "

But longer working hours are not on the agenda for Laurent Berger. For him too, we "take too long" to worry about employment while "the risk of bankruptcies in cascade and its share of social and territorial dramas is confirmed".

"If we think that we are going to get out of it positively by promising sweat and tears, we are in the mad," he said in the weekly La Vie.

Rather than wanting to lengthen working hours, "we must learn to work differently and to work better", he argues, particularly worried about the situation of young people. The CGT also remains committed to 32 hours.

For now, the government is focusing above all on a return to work. "The problem of the day is getting back to work and saving jobs," said Labor Minister Muriel Pénicaud.

For her, companies already have room for maneuver negotiable with their employees, in particular the quota of 200 overtime hours without social security contributions, which is still very little used.

Jenny Chase for DayNewsWorld


Finally good news for the French at this time of pandemic Covid-19 "The French will go to France in July and August," announced Edward Philip.

While adding however, "there is not much certainty on this subject", keeping the hypothesis of a second wave of the epidemic and of possible "very localized restrictions".

"The French can take their reservations," further encouraged Édouard Philippe.

He also promises, in agreement with professionals in the sector, "a full refund for the French in the event of cancellation of their reservation linked to the Covid."

The reopening date for restaurants, cafes and bars will be set the week of May 25, he said.

"If the epidemic does not worsen, the cafes and restaurants of the green departments will be able to open on June 2, 2020", further ambitions the government.

This confirms the information from Nicolas de Villiers, the president of Puy du Fou, who assured yesterday, Wednesday, that ministerial representatives assured him that "restaurants will be able to reopen on June 2, 2020 next in green areas».

Boby Dean for DayNewsWorld


The May 5, 2020, a German court made a decision that could jeopardize the eurozone. The German Constitutional Court has indeed called on Tuesday the European Central Bank to justify "within three months" its redemptions of public debt, thus weakening its vast support for the economy in the midst of a coronavirus pandemic.

The quantitative easing (QE) policy of the European Central Bank has in fact been judged partly unconstitutional in Germany according to the judges of the Court of Karlsruhe

This decision concerns the purchases of sovereign debt by the ECB. They are part of the famous QE, the quantitative easing launched in March 2015 to support the economy in the euro zone.

"For the first time in its history, the German Constitutional Court finds that the actions and decisions of the European institutions have clearly not been taken within the framework of European competences and therefore cannot have any effect in Germany" declared Andreas Vosskuhle, President of the German Constitutional Court

This resounding ruling sounds like a challenge to the European institutions by targeting the anti-crisis program carried out since 2015, at the same time as the Frankfurt Institute is strengthening it in the face of the consequences of the health crisis.

Formally, however, the judgment rendered on Tuesday "does not concern" the emergency pandemic program (PEPP), announced in mid-March by the ECB and endowed with 750 billion euros by the end of the year. , remind the magistrates.

Bundesbank could stop buying debt for the ECB

Concretely, the powerful German Central Bank will be prohibited from participating in these massive buyouts of sovereign bonds if "the Governing Council of the ECB" does not demonstrate their "proportionality", decided the German supreme court.

Clearly, the Frankfurt institution must establish by the month of August, in an "understandable and detailed", that the positive effects of this program outweigh its disadvantages. The ECB has for years been arguing for this “quantitative easing” or “QE”, criticized in particular in Germany, explaining that it wants to stimulate the supply of credit, and therefore ultimately growth and employment in the euro zone.

For the German judges, the ECB has not justified the principle - sacrosaint in Germany - of proportionality between the significant resources released and its mission to ensure price stability in the euro zone, ie an inflation rate close to but below 2%. It is suspected across the Rhine that this monetary policy would have been used more to subsidize the countries of the south of the euro zone, to the detriment of the German saver, while ignoring the treaties which impose to distribute the financing in the zone in due proportion the participation of each country in the capital of the ECB *.

Germany is therefore reluctant to pay for the countries it once called the "club med": Italy, Greece, Portugal and Spain, which it accuses of lax budget. We could add France.

Seized by several Eurosceptic applicants, the Constitutional Court admittedly admitted that it had "not been able to establish a violation" by the ECB of the prohibition imposed on it to finance European states directly.

But in a decision of a rare virulence, the magistrates of Karlsruhe judge "doubtful" the competence of the institute of Frankfurt to redeem massively of the public debt, that is the main part of the 2,600 billion euros injected on the markets March 2015 and December 2018 as part of the "QE", reactivated last November.

"Because of their responsibility for integration, the federal government and the German Bundestag are obliged to oppose the previous treatment of the PSPP (the ECB buy-back program)," said the decision.

It remains to be seen whether the federal government and the German Bundestag will follow the German Constitutional Court.

But more generally, this decision poses the fundamental question of Germany's accession to the euro zone when the monetary institution appears to be the only solid pillar of the euro zone to face the health and economic crisis caused by the Covid-19.

Jaimie Potts for DayNewsWorld


If France is currently preparing for a way out of the crisis, the hypothesis of a "reconfiguration" is not excluded by the government of Edouard Philippe. In other countries, the question of closing everything has already arisen. Japan

In Japan

Japan has never decreed a strict containment, so as not to infringe on civil liberties, the government justifies itself.

But different measures have been taken:

a state of emergency has been declared and in several areas the Japanese have been asked to stay at home.

This is the case on the island of Hokkaido, which was one of the first centers of the virus in the archipelago.

Faced with the numerous cases identified, the governor of the island had declared a state of emergency at the end of February. Schools had been closed and rallies prohibited.

As for the infected, they were listed and placed in solitary confinement. The rest of the population also had to avoid displacement.

Thanks to these measures, the curve had dropped rapidly to the point that the state of emergency was lifted on March 19, 2020.

But twenty-six days later, on April 12, 2020, the governor of Hokkaido Island had to back off and restrict travel again.

The number of cases had indeed increased significantly.

The whole of Japan is facing this problem: the number of patients is on the increase, while it was at its lowest rate in early March.

An aggravation certainly due to the health rules which are less and less respected.

In China

The Chinese authorities have never been very transparent on the figures of the Covid-19.

If the country has boasted of getting out of the crisis before everyone else, it is not now spreading the news of the new epidemic outbreaks it has to face.

In the utmost discretion, the approximately 600,000 inhabitants of the district of Jia, in central China, were therefore again confined from March 31, 2020, while the rest of the country was gradually emerging from a long sleep.

If this second confinement worries so much, it is because it is perhaps the first stage of the dreaded “second wave”. "

In Germany

Across the Rhine, the deconfinement process slowly started on Monday, April 20, 2020.

But the relief was short-lived. The contagion rate, which fell to 0.7 in April, fell back to 1 in just a few days.

The specialists are formal:

if it reached 1.3, a second containment would be necessary from June.

"A number of prominent epidemiologists believe that the question is not whether there will be a second wave but when it will happen," said the newspaper Der Spiegel.

Thus, if the second confinement does not take place in June, it could be inevitable during the summer or at the start of the school year.

Chancellor Angela Merkel therefore remains cautious before declaring victory.

Faced with a second wave, governments would have no other option than to reconfigure.

Britney Delsey for DayNewsWorld


The finance ministers of the 27 had until April 10 to propose a plan to manage the epidemic. The scenario of a deep crisis was taking a little more shape every day within the European Union (EU). Divided on the common economic response to bring to face the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic, the finance ministers of the euro zone, met Thursday, April 9, 2020, by videoconference have finally found common ground, before another Council of Heads of State and Government. But already, the North-South divide, which nearly imploded the EU in 2010, during the eurozone debt crisis and the rescue of Greece, resurfaced forcefully during the arduous negotiations of the past few days. .

A recovery was hoped to see Europe come together in imagining collective solutions.

The European Union countries finally reached agreement on Thursday on a common economic response to the coronavirus. Common ground was notably found with the Netherlands, which has blocked talks since Tuesday.

This vast plan would bring all the measures adopted by the European Union to combat the effects of the pandemic to 3,200 billion euros, the largest in the world. "The meeting ended with the applause of the ministers", announced on Twitter the spokesman for the president of the Eurogroup, Mario Centeno. "Today, we have responded to our citizens' call for a Europe that protects" with "bold proposals that seemed impossible just a few days ago"

Bruno Le Maire said that Europe had concluded the most important economic plan in its history. "Everyone had in mind that it was either an agreement or the risk of a European dislocation," he said.

German Finance Minister Olaf Scholz greeted him "a great day for European solidarity". "It is important that we all provide a common response that allows our states to overcome the health challenges as well as the economic challenges" created by the Covid-19 pandemic, said the minister.

Three main axes

The recovery plan to respond to the crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic revolves around three axes:

1 ° The European Stability Mechanism (MES) for 240 billion, the European Investment Bank (EIB) up to 200 billion

2 ° The "Sure" plan ("Support to mitigate unemployment risks in emergency") with 100 billion for the benefit of the partially unemployed proposed by the European Commission. "The only condition for accessing MES loans will be to support health spending," said Eurogroup president Mario Centeno on Thursday evening.

3 ° And the stimulus fund to be defined.

The heads of state and government, who themselves had failed to reach an agreement at a summit on March 26, will still have to validate these proposals.

The stimulus fund and the unresolved question of "corona bonds"

The burning issue of "corona bonds", intended to support the economy in the longer term after the crisis, considered less urgent, was not resolved on Thursday.

The countries most affected by the virus, in particular Italy, are calling for the creation of a stimulus "fund" which can be financed by common debt, in the form of eurobonds sometimes called "corona bonds" or "eurobonds". However, the pooling of debts constitutes a red line for Berlin and The Hague, which refuse to subscribe to a common approach with the highly indebted States of the South, considered lax in their management.

The tea towel was burning in the EU between countries of the South, like Italy and Spain, among the most affected by the pandemic and with fragile finances, and those of the North, led by the Netherlands - leader of the so-called "frugal" states - and by Germany and Austria, supporters of financial control. The first, supported by France and seven other European countries (Greece, Portugal, Slovenia, Belgium, Luxembourg and Ireland, joined since by Cyprus) plead for the creation of a coronabond.

While Bruno Le Maire said Thursday that the agreement paves the way for joint debt, his Dutch counterpart Wopke Hoekstra stressed the opposite. “We are and will remain opposed to 'corona bonds'. This concept will not help either Europe or the Netherlands in the long term, "said the Dutch Minister of Economy after the talks.

The Eurogroup has not taken any decision concerning these obligations, but the final text mentions a "recovery fund" of which "the legal and practical aspects", in particular the "financing", will still have to be defined by the Heads of State or of government.

Towards European solidarity ...

This consensus is a relief for Europeans who manage to display unity in the face of the disastrous economic consequences of the virus, after weeks of procrastination highlighting a divide between the countries of the North and those of the South.

A unitary response was all the more essential since the European economy is heading towards a deep recession in 2020, the International Monetary Fund even believing that the coronavirus could cause worldwide "the worst economic consequences since the Great Depression" of 1929.

Wednesday morning, after 16 hours of discussions, The Hague had been unanimously singled out for its inflexibility, hampering any prospect of agreement on an unconditional activation of this European relief fund MES, created in 2012 for States in difficulty. Member States criticized the Netherlands (supported, according to a European source, by Austria, Sweden and Denmark) for blocking the activation of the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), by strictly conditioning the loans that could be granted by this euro zone relief fund for economic reforms . Blocking the use of the European Stability Mechanism (MES) "because we stubbornly, ideologically, religiously hold on to the implementation of severe conditionality is irresponsible", said Jean-Claude Juncker to the French daily Liberation

Such “conditionality”, which would go back to the time when Greece was forced to implement sometimes painful reforms in exchange for new money, would have been experienced as a humiliation by Italy and Spain, both European countries currently most affected by the epidemic. Germany finally proposed to ease the conditions for granting loans.

Created in 2012 during the debt crisis and financed by the Member States, the ESM could lend to the States up to 2% of their GDP, or up to 240 billion euros for the whole of the euro zone.

For Jean-Claude Juncker, the inflexibility of the Netherlands was all the more incomprehensible since "the MES would not be enough to revive" the European economies.

To achieve this, the former President of the Commission supported the creation of a European borrowing capacity, around the issue of "coronabonds". "In December 2010, as President of the Eurogroup, I had proposed the creation of eurobonds so that all members of the euro zone benefit from the same interest rate. But it is necessary to make the difference with the 'coronabonds': it is not a question of mutualizing the national debts of the past, an idea against which half of Europe was raised, but of mutualizing the debt which will arise from the establishment of the budgetary means necessary to respond to the coronavirus crisis, ”he explained. "It is a question of organizing jointly this financing of the current crisis by combining the various instruments: European Investment Bank, MES, European budget and finally 'coronabonds'", he added ...

To the question of whether the European Union will survive the crisis, two comments:

“The Covid-19 acts as a stress test, headlined the German daily Die Welt at the end of March: it reveals the selfishness of the member states. "

The former Finnish Prime Minister Alexander Stubb recalls the three classic phases of the European crises: "First awareness, then chaos and, finally, an imperfect solution."

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld


The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE), presented its assessment of the current health crisis and proposed avenues for the rebound of the world economies.

Ahead of the virtual G20 summit held on Friday March 27, OCDE Secretary General Angel Gurría released the latest estimates of the economic impact of the Covid-19.

For the OECD, containment will directly affect sectors representing up to a third of GDP in the largest economies. Each month of confinement results in a loss of 2% in annual GDP growth.

The tourism sector alone is exposed to a drop in activity which amounts to 70%.

The fight against the pandemic is combined with enormous budgetary efforts made to restore normal economic activity as soon as possible.

Many economies are therefore headed for a recession.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld




The coronavirus will plunge France into recession in 2020, estimated Tuesday the Minister of Economy Bruno Le Maire, who announced 45 billion euros in direct aid and 300 billion state guarantees for bank loans enterprises

“We are in an economic and financial war. It will be long and violent, ”warned Bruno Le Maire during a telephone press conference on Tuesday. The Minister of Economy wanted to detail the measures unveiled by Emmanuel Macron the previous evening, specifying the consequences on growth.

France's public debt is expected to exceed its GDP in 2020, due to the efforts to be made to counter the fallout from the coronavirus. This was announced by the French Minister of Finance, Bruno Le Maire, "We will be beyond 100% of public debt", recognized the Minister, without giving details on the budget deficit expected for this year where it now forecasts negative growth of -1%.

An envelope of 45 billion euros

A support plan of 45 billion euros will support businesses and employees. to limit the damage, including bankruptcies in cascade of companies, too fragile to cash a total stop of their activity for weeks. It includes the measures of partial unemployment over two months, as well as the deferral of the tax and social charges of the companies . Cancellations of charges are also envisaged.

A billion euros solidarity fund - supposed to provide them with a "safety net" - targets small businesses that have been hit hard by the crisis, notably catering, tourism and food. They will receive a lump sum of 1,500 euros. To be eligible, they will have to post a loss of 70% between March 2019 and March 2020. "If we put so much money now on the table, it is to help (the economy) to restart quickly", once the epidemic defeated, justified Mr. Le Maire. "The goal is to allow the economy to restart as soon as possible," said the minister, adding that this amount is a "first assessment" that can be reviewed if the situation requires.

Until the nationalization of a company

"No business will be left at risk of bankruptcy," promised Emmanuel Macron.

Bruno Le Maire, actually declared himself ready to use "all means" including capitalization or an equity investment to "protect" French companies threatened by the coronavirus crisis.

And if the President of the Republic refused the day before to use the word "confinement", Bruno Le Maire does not hesitate today to use another emblematic term: "nationalization." "

"I will not hesitate to use all the means at my disposal (...) This can go through capitalization or an equity investment. I can even use the term nationalization if necessary. "

To these 45 billion euros are added to the state guarantees of 300 billion euros to ensure bank loans.

"The banks will have to lend, they will have no reason to refuse loans," assured Bruno Le Maire, adding that "the time is not for dividends but support for the economy".

For Bruno Le Maire, "the protection of companies and employees is necessary in order to prevent the economic breakdown from turning into social breakdown".

Because the Minister of Economy insists: "The health war, I hope it's a matter of weeks. The economic and financial war is a matter of months. It will therefore take time to restart the economy, to give it back its full power."

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



You see that the great sick body of globalization is now undermined by the Coronavirus pandemic. To date, the only known parade involves the confinement of men and trade ... trade.

As in a science fiction scenario, reality slides into a universe with radically different logics.

Psychosis ?

In Italy, Bergamo is counting its deaths overwhelmed by a sharp rise in deaths linked to the Covid-19 epidemic, which is hitting the country very hard. From all over the world, impacted by the Covid619, stores are robbed, shelves of pulp and toilet paper first, the streets are empty, the stadiums are closed, cultural events are unprogrammed, we observe scenes of psychosis in front of containment measures. The stock markets are going down, brent is at its worst ...

The crisis caused by the Covid-19 coronavirus is the most serious of the past 20 years, it is more important than the 2008-2009 crisis both in its magnitude and especially in its unpredictability.

How to face this new pandemic ?

In Germany as in the United States, there has been talk of a "bazooka" to deal with the crisis.

Would the world have fallen into a state of war ?

A state of war ? 

Mario Centeno, president of the Eurogroup, delivered a grim diagnosis on the economic impact of the coronavirus on the economy of the European Union. "Forced containment puts our economies in a situation similar to that of a war," said Mario Centeno, president of the Eurogroup, on Monday just before a videoconference of the 27 EU finance ministers, devoted to the coronavirus.

“We know that the virus has not reached its peak. We must not hide our faces, ”warned Mr. Centeno, who chairs the group of 19 countries that have adopted the single currency.

According to the OECD "the world economy is in danger" and is preparing to face "the most serious danger since the financial crisis", while the disease "has already caused considerable human suffering.

It took indeed less than a month for world trade to derail. At the height of the crisis in China, 80% of the country's GDP was impacted. A shock wave for world trade. China accounts for a quarter of world production. It concentrates 27% of global computer production and 60% of paracetamol production ... but is also a major order giver in Asia as well as a large global market for sectors such as luxury (35% of sales ), the automobile (40% of Volkswagen sales) or electronics (20% of Apple sales), underlines a report by KYU associates. Today, 50 to 70% of the Chinese economy has rebounded, but now it is now European companies that are stopping. According to Euler Hermes, the drop in world exports would amount to $ 320 billion in goods and services in this quarter alone.

Gita Gopinath, Chief Economist of the International Monetary Fund, sums up the challenge: "to prevent a temporary crisis from causing irreparable harm to people and businesses due to job losses and bankruptcies", thanks to a response vigorous and coordinated by governments and central banks.

Faced with economic difficulties, public authorities and institutions are putting their hands in their pockets to ensure the emergency and try to maintain the economy.

Answers at the scale of each country.

China has released 43 billion dollars to help its companies, Japan four billion dollars, England 35 billion euros. And Italy with a total amount of 25 billion euros, still to fight the epidemic of Covid-19, which has already killed more than 600 people in the country. Canada with the creation of a billion Canadian dollar fund Mr. Trudeau, planning new announcements in the coming days. Germany further artillery heavy with measures with the blocking of an additional envelope of 12.8 billion euros over four years for infrastructure investments.

Donald Trump, for his part, proposed a vast stimulus plan of $ 700 billion and one of the flagship proposals of the tenant of the White House is to abolish payroll taxes until the end of the year, in order to inflate the household purchasing power. Each country has responded individually and for its part, freeing up funds to help overcome the economic consequences of the epidemic.

"But in 2008-2009, it was the G20 itself which had taken the reins of such a response, to the point of being qualified as" world economic government ".

Eleven years later, the trade war, Brexit, the rise of populism have passed through. There is no indication that the group of the world's top twenty economies will want to take on this role again. "

And does not the first of the solidarities consist for the States to anticipate and the citizens to be educated at the time when one lives a health war ?

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld


The global markets suffered a sharp fall on Monday March 9, 2020.

The collapse in the price of oil and the epidemic of coronavirus have caused stock market anxiety. Many indices completely unscrewed on Monday. Oil prices fell 25% on Monday, with Saudi Arabia and Russia having started a price war.

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), whose main actor is Saudi Arabia] and Russia (2nd world producer of black gold) met on Friday March 6, 2020, in Vienna, Austria, to evoke a drop in production.

Their aim was to maintain prices in response to the drop in demand caused by the coronavirus. But the Russian Minister of Energy, Alexander Novak, shattered the alliance between Moscow and Riyadh which had been presiding over the delicate balance of the market for three years. But they did not find an agreement.

OPEC weakening

With Russia refusing to cut production, Saudi Arabia responded by literally opening the floodgates: its daily oil production increased by a million barrels a day. It did not take more to cause a vertiginous fall in the price of black gold. Within hours, the oil world went from a tense situation to a major crisis. Prices fell sharply in Asia.

A barrel of brent North Sea plunged 25% to 33.90 dollars (30 euros). This dropout does not seem close to stopping. Market observers agree that, in the coming weeks, the price could reach its historically low level of 2016, below 30 dollars.

In Asia, the fall reached 30% on Monday, the largest drop since the Gulf War in 1991. On European markets, the drop was slightly less (- 20%).

A shock whose economic and social consequences are likely to be severe. The continuing coronavirus epidemic and concern, but also the collapse of the oil market have acted as a catalyst.

Stock market decline

The stock market unscrewed on March 9, 2020. Whether it is the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (- 4%), that of London (- 7%), the CAC 40 in Paris (- 8.3%, worst session since 2008) or still in Frankfurt (- 7.9%), no financial center was spared by a brutal plunge. So much so that on Wall Street (- 6% for the Nasdaq), trade was suspended for a quarter of an hour at the opening - a "circuit breaker" intended to avoid a general panic that had never has been used since its establishment in New York in 2013.

A global economic slowdown is increasingly likely.

Before Monday, the price of oil had already dropped due to the economic consequences of the coronavirus which slows down activity and therefore causes a drop in oil consumption.

Less oil consumed is a global production that slows down and creates less wealth, hence the general concern of the markets, accentuated by the decision of Saudi Arabia to "drown" the price of oil. "We are in a usual balance of power, Saudi Arabia has often had this kind of behavior

"A prolonged decline in consumption, in addition to prolonged closings of companies, would attack profits, lead to job losses and affect morale" economic players, wrote analysts Moody's on Monday.

Economic and political battle

But beyond this plunge in oil prices, a stake in geopolitical strategy is at stake. Indeed, it is above all an economic and geopolitical battle between the three biggest world producers which are the United States, Russia and Saudi Arabia. Historically, the OPEC cartel, led by Riyadh, led the game globally. However, since 2015, the black gold chessboard has been completely upset, with the rapid development of shale oil in the United States, and in particular in the Texan region of the Permian basin.

And Putin, exasperated by the US sanctions that have scuttled the Nord Stream 2, by not giving in to the Saudi kingdom's demands to stabilize black gold prices, at the OPEC meeting last Friday, in reality , a declaration of war against the Trump administration which does not hesitate to use oil as an economic and political weapon.

"We consider it the equivalent of a declaration of war on the oil market. A split between two of the largest producers of crude oil, Saudi Arabia and Russia, over how to respond to the collapse in demand caused by the rampant coronavirus epidemic, has caused oil prices to plummet, " writes the "Financial Times".

Simon Freeman for DayNewsWorld


In a world hanging from the coronavirus, the economy is faltering. The world stands still as the new coronavirus spreads. Long before the outbreak of the epidemic, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) had warned that the global recovery would be "slow", "fragile" and likely to falter at the slightest risk. Since the epidemic, the IMF has already lowered its global growth forecasts for 2020, taking into account the impact on China, the second largest economy in the world. But that was before the contagion to the rest of the world.

Covid-19 popular worldwide

The coronavirus has indeed spread like wildfire. More than forty countries are now affected by the epidemic that hit the shores of Brazil, no longer sparing the South American continent. At the last count, 81,000 people were contaminated by Covid-19 which killed 2,761 people worldwide, including only 40 outside of China.

The epidemic has entered a "decisive phase," said the World Health Organization (WHO). In the past two days, the daily number of new people infected worldwide has been higher than that recorded in China, where the virus first appeared in December.

With 528 cases identified and 14 dead, Italy has become the epicenter of the Old Continent. No one is spared. Greece, Spain, the United Kingdom, Croatia, Austria, Denmark and Germany have at least one infected person after a stay on the peninsula. Elsewhere in Europe, many countries such as Estonia, Switzerland, Norway, the Netherlands, Romania and North Macedonia are also affected.

For economists, the coronavirus could be too much “external shock”.

The global economy faces its worst risk of recession since the 2008 financial crisis.

"With the partial exception of black plague in 14th century Europe, every major pandemic has been followed by an economic recession," observes Professor Robert Dingwall, researcher at the University of Nottingham Trent in England. "I don't think there are any good reasons to think it would be different this time," he said.

Radical measures against the coronavirus

Especially since the list of radical measures to try to contain the new virus is growing every day a little more, the virus from mainland China spreading like wildfire on all continents.

As of January, production plants had been shut down in China and entire cities confined. On Friday, the iconic Basel watch fair was adjourned and the Geneva motor show was canceled. Saudi Arabia has stopped welcoming pilgrims to Mecca. Uncertainty also hangs over the holding of the Tokyo Olympic Games in July. Iran prohibits people who are sick or suspected of being sick from traveling inside the country. The United States and South Korea have announced the suspension of joint military exercises. In Italy, the clash between Juventus and Inter Milan and four other matches in the championship will take place this weekend behind closed doors, confirmed the Italian Football League on Thursday.

Heavy economic consequences

The economic consequences are already enormous in certain sectors such as transport, luxury, tourism. Chinese travelers, usually so numerous in major European capitals, are sorely lacking. Likewise, Asian destinations are shunned by tourists. Italy (whose tourism represents 13% of the GDP) is likely to see worsening its difficulties. "We carried out a preliminary calculation which estimates that this crisis will cost at least 22 billion dollars [approximately 20 billion euros] to the sector" tourism in the world, says Gloria Guevara, president of the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) in an interview with the daily newspaper "El Mundo". The shortfall could climb to 49 billion dollars (44.6 billion d 'euros) if the crisis lasted as long as that of SARS which had unfolded in six months between 2002 and 2003 and 73 billion dollars (66.5 billion euros) if it was prolonged more, according to Oxford Economics.

Dependence on China

The dependence on China, its huge market and its gigantic production capacities is even more visible in areas such as the automobile (certain equipment manufacturers are in great difficulty), the food industry (exports are trapped), the pharmaceutical sector. , etc. Some companies are already unemployed. "The contraction in production in China has had effects worldwide, reflecting the growing importance of China in global supply chains and in commodity markets," said the OECD.

A loss of half a percentage point for global growth is based on "the assumption that the epidemic peak will be reached in China in the first quarter of 2020 and that in the other countries, the epidemic will prove to be more moderate and circumscribed", specifies the international organization based in Paris. A more sustainable epidemic, which would spread widely in Asia-Pacific, Europe and North America, could even halve global growth this year, warns the organization.

Central bank concerns and contingency plans

Central banks are worried. In an interview with the "Financial Times", Christine Lagarde, the president of the ECB, explains that the crisis does not require an hour of monetary response, but that the shock could last long. Its impact on the world economy could be greater than that of SARS in 2002, estimated for its part Klaas Knot the governor of the bank of the Netherlands. The stock markets all sank again on Thursday.

Emergency plans are ready to be activated, notably by the International Monetary Fund, to provide financial assistance to countries that cannot cope with the epidemic.

"We have rapid financing instruments, credit facilities to support countries" in the event of an epidemic or natural disasters, detailed the spokesperson of the institution, recalling the case of Ebola.

But to Barry Glassner, American sociologist author of Culture of Fear, to conclude that "nations and individuals need to take their precautions, including that of countering fear, which is spreading at least as fast than the virus itself ".

Jenny Chase for DayNewsWorld




The reactor 1 of the Fessenheim power plant, the oldest French nuclear power plant in operation, must be shut down definitively on the night of Friday February 21 to Saturday February 22, 2020. And this after years of debate on the fate the Alsatian power plant, built in the 1970s, very close to the border with Germany

The operation should start at 8:30 p.m. on Friday and finish at 2 a.m. on Saturday. "A shift team, made up of ten to fifteen people", A harrowing night for the shift team which will launch the shutdown process of reactor n ° 1, carrying out the actions to decouple it definitively.

But some employees threaten to disobey and not apply the shutdown procedures for the 900 megawatt (MW) pressurized water reactor.

Reactor n ° 2 shut down on June 30

If the procedure follows its normal course, the power of the reactor must decrease progressively and it will be disconnected from the national electricity network when it has dropped to 8% of its usual power.

The procedure is identical to that of a conventional maintenance operation. But this time, no return to service will take place. Reactor 2 is due to be shut down on June 30.

A decree published in the Official Journal on Wednesday "repeals the authorization to operate the Fessenheim nuclear power plant owned by EDF", putting the final character of this judgment black and white.

The evacuation of fuel from the plant will, according to the planned schedule, be completed in 2023. Then must continue the phase of preparation for decommissioning, a process unprecedented in France on the scale of an entire plant which should begin on the horizon. 2025 and continue at least until 2040.

For Matignon, the closure of Fessenheim "constitutes a first step in France's energy strategy, which aims for a progressive rebalancing" between the different types of energy, with a gradual decrease in the share of nuclear power - currently by 70%, the largest in the world - and an increase in that of electricity from renewable sources.

But the controversy over the merits of this closure will not stop with the shutdown of reactor n ° 1. Indeed there is no economic justification for this closure, the unit being in perfect working order and certified by the independent nuclear safety authority. It brings in more than 200 million euros net per year and its dismantling will surely cost more than half a billion according to the Court of Auditors.

But the shareholder state bowed to the political state and shot itself in the foot. We must offer a symbol to environmentalists who promote nuclear risk and waste management. But environmentalists conceal the fact that nuclear energy does not produce greenhouse gases and that it is therefore one of the solutions in the fight against global warming, renewable energies currently unable to take over. sufficient quantity and inherently unstable.

On the other hand, the Fessenheim judgment will force Germany, for example, to produce more electricity from coal.

An irresponsible choice ?

The deputy LR of the Haut-Rhin Raphaël Schellenberger asked the employees "sorry for this irresponsible choice of which you are the first victims". If the minister of ecological transition Elisabeth Borne assured that there would be "no loss of employment", the local elected officials fear that the State abandons this watered territory for forty years by the taxes paid by EDF. They fear that hundreds of families with comfortable incomes will leave it.

Right now, shutting down this profitable and socially safe business is clearly a decision made to please environmentalists.

Paul Emison for DayNewsWorld



It is a very severe opinion !!.

This Friday, January 7, 2020, the State Council strongly criticized the method with which the government conducted its pension reform project, presented the same morning in the Council of Ministers. This suggests harsh and long future debates.

Seized on January 3, 2020, the institution had only three weeks to render its conclusions on the two bills (organic and ordinary).

A time deemed far too short, especially since the government has also modified the text six times during this period.

The Council of State underlines that “having regard to the date and the conditions of its referral, as well as to the numerous modifications made to the texts while it was examining them, the will of the government to have its opinion within a period of three weeks did not put him in a position to carry out his mission with the serenity and the time required for reflection to best guarantee the legal certainty of the examination he carried out ”, declared the court in its opinion.

"A situation all the more regrettable" since it is a reform "unprecedented since 1945 and intended to transform for decades to come [...] one of the major components of the social contract", adds the highest administrative jurisdiction of the country.

“Gap” financial projections

In addition to the two laws, a financial impact study of this reform was also sent to it. And this study has not, as it stands, satisfied lawyers. The first version was "insufficient", and even once the text was completed, "the financial projections remain incomplete", in particular on the increase in the retirement age, the employment rate of seniors, spending on unemployment insurance and those related to social minima, they argue.

In some cases, the impact study "remains below what it should be, so it is up to the government to improve it even before the bill is tabled in Parliament," notes the Conseil d 'State.

Using too many prescriptions

The institution also points out the choice to use 29 prescriptions, including "for the definition of structuring elements of the new pension system", which "makes lose the overall visibility which is necessary for the appreciation of the consequences of reform and, therefore, its constitutionality and its conventionality ”.

This criticism echoes the explosion in the number of prescriptions, which were once exceptional. "The novelty with the Philippe government is the use of ordinances for very political reforms such as labor law and railway reform, the legal site Dalloz-actualité already noted in March 2018.

The purpose of the ordinances is not so much to allow a faster implementation, as to avoid a stagnation of the parliamentary debates: the enabling laws can be adopted without waiting for the finalization of a precise text. " method of which the Council of State today points the limit.

As an example of the consequences of the reform: that relating to the “100% conservation of the rights created” at the time of the switch between the current system and the future “universal system” is considered “particularly crucial”, to such an extent “that in the absence of such an order "the reform" will not apply "to persons born from 1975.

Commitments to teachers "contrary to the Constitution"

The Council of State also considers that the commitment made by the government to increase the salaries of teachers and researchers via programming laws is doomed to disappear from the text. "These provisions constitute an injunction to the government to table a bill and its thus contrary to the Constitution", estimated the institution.

The false promise of a "universal pension plan"

The Council of State also notes that the reform project does not establish "a universal system which would be characterized, like any social security system, by a set consisting of a single eligible population, uniform rules and a fund unique ”. And for good reason, the text creates "five regimes", with "within each of these regimes" "rules derogating from those of the universal system".

This opinion comes at a time when the protest against the pension reform had a new day of mobilization throughout France, with a slight revival of mobilization. . “In form and content, the Council of State fully confirms what we have been saying from the start. There is a real problem with the legal consistency of the text, ”reacted François Hommeril, president of CFE-CGC, on Saturday.

The unions also called for continuing the movement next week.

An opinion which will be useful for those who say that the government improvises, or in any case that it has not gone far enough in the reflection and the development of a text, not consensual, but of a text coherent !!!!

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld



France and the United States have pushed back the specter of a trade war between the two countries. Paris has agreed to freeze its tax on digital giants, pending an international agreement.

The tenant of the White House managed to obtain the suspension of the famous GAFA tax until a date fixed beyond Tuesday, November 3, ie the day of the American elections.

The famous Gafa tax was implemented by France in early 2019. It consists of a taxation of 3% of the turnover of large web companies which generate at least 750 million euros in revenue worldwide, and more 25 million euros in France.

This cordial agreement arrived just hours before the Choose France event during which 200 French and foreign business leaders gathered in Versailles to talk about industrial investments and research & development.

The avowed aim of these negotiations was to avoid an economic war which could have cost France 2.4 billion dollars. Donald Trump had indeed planned to tax French exports as a response to this tax deemed "discriminating" and "unreasonable" by the US administration.

It was not in the interest of France to start a trade war with the United States, especially since the Minister of the Economy, currently in Davos, must meet his American counterpart to discuss (yet) negotiations to be carried out within the framework of the OECD, perceived as being the “right format” for laying down the rules of the game.

The matamore Bruno Le Maire, in Davos where he should meet Steven Mnuchin, his American counterpart, had to give up !

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld



This Tuesday, Muriel Pénicaud receives unions at the Ministry of Labor to discuss the arduousness and employment of seniors. In the pension reform bill, it is the vagueness which continues to dominate concerning the way in which certain aspects of the text will be managed, including two which are today on the agenda: arduousness and employment seniors. This Tuesday, January 14, the Minister of Labor Muriel Pénicaud receives the unions to work on these themes which, for different reasons, are just as sensitive as the pivotal age, finally suspended.

Painfulness criteria.

The best consideration of arduousness is an obligation for the government, which intends to end the special regimes while introducing specificities "which will not be linked to companies, but to trades". To do this, the CFDT and Unsa have a ready-made idea: the reintroduction of the four arduousness criteria, removed by the "Macron ordinances" at the start of the five-year term. These criteria, which had been defined in 2015, related to the manual handling of heavy loads, painful postures, mechanical vibrations and dangerous chemical agents. From now on, only night work, repetitive work, so-called “3x8” work, work in a “hyperbaric” environment (under high pressure), noises and extreme temperatures remain in the “personal prevention account”. "With the criteria recognized today, it is 180,000 people concerned, if we put the other four criteria, that makes 800,000 people, and there, it starts to make sense", justified Laurent Berger

But the government is, for the moment, completely opposed to this option. The secretary of state in charge of the file, Laurent Pietraszewski, clearly closed the door, on the grounds that these criteria "were not or hardly evaluated in the life of companies". A reluctance, moreover, shared by Medef.

For its part, the executive wants rather to encourage "retraining schemes" for people exercising a difficult job. Another avenue formulated by Édouard Philppe: make the current system “more generous”, by lowering, for example, the number of nights worked in order to benefit from taking the criterion into account.

The employment of seniors.

Another point that will be discussed between Muriel Pénicaud and the social partners: the employment of seniors. A sector in which France is far behind in comparison with its European partners, according to figures from the Dares (Department of Research Animation, Studies and Statistics). A report by the Court of Auditors published in October puts the employment rate of 55-64 year olds at 52.3%. However, and even if the pivotal age has been removed (temporarily) from the text, the government intends to encourage the French to work longer. A wish that contradicts the cruel reality of the job market for seniors. 40% of employees today, when they retire, are no longer at work.

It remains to be seen which tracks will be discussed on Tuesday. Medef proposes to introduce a “progressive retirement”, by proposing to the employees concerned to spend 80% then 60% of working time, by compensating for the rest of the missing salary by a pension paid by the pension fund. In other words, to relieve businesses of the cost of seniors.

The reformist unions prefer reclassification solutions and the launch of information campaigns to "promote the intergenerational", as the CFDT wants.

Jenny Chase for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Carlos Ghosn est de retour devant les caméras ce mercredi 8 janvier 2020 pour une contre-attaque médiatique. L’ancien PDG de Renault-Nissan a affirmé se présenter devant la presse, mercredi 8 janvier, pour « laver son honneur », lors de sa première apparition publique, à Beyrouth, depuis son arrivée le 30 décembre au Liban, son pays d’origine.


Carlos Ghosn avait été arrêté le 19 novembre 2018. L'homme d'affaires franco-libanais fait l'objet de quatre inculpations au Japon. Le clan Ghosn a dénoncé le système juridique au Japon et une « conspiration » ourdie par des cadres de Nissan, des hauts fonctionnaires du ministère de l'Économie et des hommes du parquet de Tokyo pour l'évincer.

« J'étais présumé coupable à cause d'une collusion entre certains cadres de Nissan avec la complicité du parquet de Tokyo et d'un cabinet d'avocats Latham Law Firm », assure-t-il.

La décision de la justice ne serait pas tombée « avant cinq ans », selon Carlos Ghosn. « Je n'ai pas fui la justice, j'ai échappé à l'injustice et à la persécution », a-t-il martelé en anglais. Il a estimé n’avoir « pas eu d’autre choix » que de fuir le Japon, où il est inculpé notamment pour malversations financières, une accusation d’après lui « sans fondement ».« J'ai préparé mon évasion car j'ai perdu tout espoir d'un procès équitable et quand la date du procès a été repoussée le 25 décembre jusqu'à 2021. » , a-t-il dit.

L'affaire de sa fuite au Liban, le 29 décembre, a pris une ampleur internationale et des enquêtes sont en cours au Japon et en Turquie, où Carlos Ghosn a fait escale. Il fait l'objet depuis la semaine passée d'une demande d'arrestation émanant d'Interpol. Beyrouth affirme qu'il est entré « légalement » au Liban, muni d'un passeport français.

Celui qui s'est « senti comme mort depuis le jour de mon arrestation. J'étais perdu dans un système que je ne comprenais pas, comme paralysé ou anesthésié » affirme que « Quand je suis sorti du Japon, c'était comme si je revenais à la vie », décrit le fugitif le plus célèbre du moment.

Et d'insister : « Il y a eu un sapage organisé de ma réputation », a attaqué l’ancien patron qui a nié toutes les accusations contre lui et parle d’une affaire « politique » pour se débarrasser avec lui et donc de l’influence de Renault dans l’alliance avec Nissan.


Il a dénoncé un « coup monté » contre lui et s'est dit décidé à « laver son honneur ».

« Ce sont des responsables de Nissan, du ministère public japonais qui sont à l’origine de mon calvaire », a-t-il déclaré, ajoutant que « la collusion entre Nissan et les procureurs est à tous les niveaux. (…) Quand j’ai demandé à mes avocats (…) ils ont dit qu’ils craignaient que cinq ans s’écoulent peut-être au Japon avant que je n’obtienne un verdict », a-t-il ajouté.

Selon lui « cette affaire coïncide avec le début du déclin des performances de Nissan début 2017 ». « Mon calvaire s’explique aussi par l’amertume au Japon face à l’interférence de l’Etat français dans l’alliance », a-t-il insisté. Il a porté une série d’accusations :

« Qui faisait partie de ce complot ? A l’évidence (Hiroto) Saikawa [le directeur général de Nissan, poussé à la démission après avoir reconnu avoir perçu une prime indue] en faisait partie, Hari Nada [ancien bras droit de Carlos Ghosn] en faisait partie et (Toshiaki) Onuma [le sponsable du Secrétariat chez Nissan]. Mais il y a bien d’autres personnes. (Masakazu) Toyoda, membre du conseil d’administration, faisait le lien entre le conseil de Nissan et les autorités ».


« Je peux toujours faire plein de choses et je peux laver mon honneur et j'ai toutes les preuves pour montrer mon innocence », affirme l'ancien patron

« Je suis prêt à vous remettre tous les documents qui montrent qu'il n'y a pas de manipulation. Mes avocats vont vous les donner », affirme-t-il.

« Je suis innocent de toutes les accusations et je peux le prouver, j'ai les documents. Si je ne peux avoir la justice au Japon, je l'aurais ailleurs », conclut-il. Et d'ajouter :

« J'ai plaidé mon innocence en menottes et en laisse il y a un an devant un juge japonais et devant les médias » rappelle-t-il.

« Ils ont voulu tourner la page Ghosn et ils ont réussi car il n'y a plus de croissance, d'augmentation des dividendes ou d'avancées technologiques », clame Carlos Ghosn.
« Il n'y a aucun pays démocratique dans le monde où les accusations, même si elles étaient vraies, sont sanctionnées au niveau criminel », avance l'ancien dirigeant de l'alliance franco-japonaise.
Garett Skyport pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



La bataille économique et géopolitique entre Washington, Bruxelles et la Russie fait rage. En cause, la construction d’un gazoduc qui va faciliter les livraisons de gaz naturel russe à l’Europe. Les USA ont en effet décidé de prendre des sanctions économiques en imposant des sanctions contre les entreprises associées à la construction du gazoduc russe, sur fond d’offensive commerciale.

L'Union européenne, Berlin en tête, et Moscou ont fermement dénoncé ce samedi 21 décembre les sanctions américaines contre le gazoduc Nord Stream 2. Les mesures « affectent des sociétés allemandes et européennes et constituent une ingérence dans nos affaires intérieures », a réagi avec fermeté une porte-parole d'Angela Merkel.

Contourner l'Ukraine

Nord Stream 2 est le nom d’un gazoduc, en cours de construction et presque achevé, qui passe sous la mer Baltique en contournant notamment l’Ukraine. D’une capacité de 55 milliards de m3 par an -autant que son frère aîné, Nord Stream 1- il doit permettre de doubler les livraisons directes de gaz naturel russe vers l’Europe occidentale via l’Allemagne, principale bénéficiaire du projet. Quelque 18% de la consommation annuelle de gaz naturel de l’UE provient de la Russie via l’Ukraine. Aux yeux de ses défenseurs, la mise en service du pipeline se justifie plus que jamais car il permet de contourner le territoire ukrainien. Les approvisionnements européens avaient été à plusieurs reprises perturbés dans les années 2000 par des conflits entre Moscou et Kiev.

Il représente en tout cas un investissement d’une dizaine de milliards d’euros financé pour moitié par le géant russe Gazprom et l’autre moitié par cinq sociétés européennes (OMV, Wintershall Dea, Engie, Uniper et Shell).

Mais depuis ses débuts, de nombreux obstacles se sont dressés sur le chemin de ce projet. Nord Stream 2 n’a ainsi obtenu que fin octobre le feu vert du Danemark pour traverser ses eaux, ce qui risque fort de retarder sa mise en service, initialement prévue fin 2019.

L' offensive commerciale des USA

Pour Washington, et certains pays européens (la Pologne, les pays baltes et l’Ukraine) ce tube va accroître la dépendance des Européens au gaz russe, que Moscou pourrait utiliser pour exercer des pressions politiques. Il sacrifie aussi les intérêts de l’allié ukrainien, qui tire des revenus importants du transit du gaz russe vers l’Europe.

Pour certains observateurs, au-delà du conflit géopolitique avec la Russie, l’opposition américaine au Nord Stream 2 fait partie d’une offensive commerciale des États-Unis : Washington, grand producteur de gaz, veut accroître ses exportations de gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL) vers l’Europe.

Les sanctions promulguées vendredi 19 décembre comprennent le gel des avoirs et la révocation des visas américains pour les entrepreneurs liés au gazoduc. Le département d’État américain doit communiquer dans les 60 jours suivant leur promulgation les noms des entreprises et des personnes qui ont participé à la pose de conduites pour Nord Stream 2.

L’une des principales cibles est Allseas, entreprise suisse propriétaire du plus grand navire de pose de pipelines du monde, le Pioneering Spirit, engagé par le russe Gazprom pour construire la section offshore.

Des sanctions inacceptables pour la Russie et l' Europe

Sans surprise, la décision de Donald Trump a suscité de vives réactions chez les parties prenantes du projet. « Un Etat avec une dette publique de 22 000 milliards de dollars interdit à des pays solvables de développer leur économie réelle », a déclaré la porte-parole de la diplomatie russe Maria Zakharova sur sa page Facebook, dénonçant « l’idéologie américaine (qui) ne supporte pas la concurrence mondiale ».

« Bientôt, ils demanderont qu’on arrête de respirer ». L’Union européenne de son côté dénonce avec force l’ingérence des États-Unis dans sa politique énergétique. « Par principe, l’Union européenne s’oppose à l’imposition de sanctions contre des entreprises européennes se livrant à des activités légales », a affirmé un porte-parole de l’UE. La Commission européenne est en train d’analyser les répercussions possibles des sanctions américaines, a indiqué le porte-parole. « L’objectif de la Commission a toujours été d’assurer que Nord Stream 2 opère de façon transparente, avec un niveau approprié de surveillance réglementaire ».

« Le gouvernement rejette ces sanctions extraterritoriales. Elles affectent des sociétés allemandes et européennes et constituent une ingérence dans nos affaires intérieures », a réagi Ulrike Demmer, une porte-parole d’Angela Merkel.

Alize Marion pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Les discussions engagées par Edouard Philippe avec les partenaires sociaux sur le projet de réforme des retraites n'ont pas permis de lever les désaccords de fond, notamment sur « l'âge d'équilibre » malgré quelques signes d'ouverture.

Les syndicats ont cependant obtenu la tenue de discussions début janvier sur quatre chantiers : pénibilité, transitions vers le futur système unique de retraites par points, minimum contributif et fins de carrière.

1° Age d'équilibre

Sur l'instauration progressive à partir de 2022 d'un âge pivot à 64 ans à l'échéance 2027, le chef du gouvernement a dit avoir pris acte de l'hostilité des syndicats, la CFDT au premier chef, mais maintient le principe de cette option « juste » selon lui pour rééquilibrer financièrement le système.

« L'âge d'équilibre, ce n'est pas simplement demander à certains de partir un peu plus tard, c'est aussi pour beaucoup de permettre de partir beaucoup plus tôt », a-t-il notamment plaidé alors que la CFDT reste fermement opposée à un scénario paramétrique « inacceptable »

Edouard Philippe s’est redit «radicalement opposé» à deux solutions alternatives: une baisse des pensions, d’une part, et une augmentation des cotisations d’autre part, qui alourdirait le coût du travail.

Le premier ministre a avancé des arguments principalement budgétaires. «Personne ne croira dans notre nouveau système, personne ne croira dans nos nouveaux droits si nous ne disons pas comment nous les financerons», a-t-il plaidé. Le futur système devra donc être solide, financièrement, d’une manière ou d’une autre.

Néanmoins, Edouard Philippe a laissé la porte ouverte à un aménagement des «trajectoires» de l’âge d’équilibre, par exemple par la «reconnaissance de la pénibilité, du handicap ainsi que [par] la retraite progressive», a-t-il suggéré

2° Minimum de pension

Il a en outre identifié des pistes d'amélioration pour le minimum contributif prévu par la réforme, parmi lesquelles une hausse au-delà de 85% du smic pour les carrières complètes. Aucun chiffre précis n’a toutefois été évoqué jusqu’ici. De leur côté, plusieurs partenaires, dont la CFDT, souhaitent le porter à 100% du smic.

3° Les régimes spéciaux

Tout en maintenant l'objectif d'une suppression des régimes spéciaux, il a indiqué que les discussions au sein de la SNCF et de la RATP avaient ouvert des voies d'aménagement.

« En ce qui concerne les agents de SNCF au statut, le gouvernement confirme son accord pour la mise en place de mesures favorisant la progressivité de la mise en œuvre de la réforme et le respect des droits acquis », a-t-il dit. Pour les agents de la RATP, « les derniers échanges ont permis d'aboutir à des avancées importantes sur la question des transitions, ces avancées sont sur la table, chacun les jugera. »

4° Les enseignants...

Edouard Philippe a rappelé qu’il s’était «engagé à revaloriser les revenus des professeurs et des chercheurs», pour qu’ils puissent bénéficier d’un niveau de pension «égal à celui d’agents de corps équivalent». La hausse débutera en janvier 2021. Une «trajectoire très claire de revalorisation» des rémunérations sera définie dans une loi de programmation, sur la base de discussions qui auront lieu d’ici l’été 2020. Les enseignants-chercheurs bénéficieront du «même travail» et d’une loi de programmation dédiée.

Le futur système de retraite «reconnaîtra les spécificités» du métier des marins, a également déclaré l’occupant de Matignon, «en particulier dans le cadre des âges d’ouverture des droits».

Edouard Philippe a conclu que le système universel pouvait être «encore amélioré» même si des «désaccords» subsistaient sur «la méthode et la façon» de mettre en œuvre ce nouveau système. Il recevradonc à nouveau les partenaires sociaux «dans les premiers jours de janvier» afin de poursuivre le dialogue avec eux.

Si Edouard Philippe a appelé les syndicats à la «responsabilité» afin qu’une trêve ait lieu dans la grève  à la SNCF comme à la RATP, la CGT-Cheminots et plusieurs autres organisations opposées à la réforme restent, sur ce point, fermes: «pas de trêve» pour les fêtes de fin d’année.

Jaimie Potts pour DayNewsWorld


The executive presented a pension reform based on a point system which he called the "universal pension system". Thus the Prime Minister detailed the new pension system by point.

Many schemes work by points, and most French people are affected by this system. Examples:

supplementary retirement for employees in the private sector, for the self-employed, retirement for the liberal professions, etc.

The point therefore becomes the nerve of war. Finished the quarters of contribution, the active will accumulate points from now on during their career. When retiring, this total number of points is converted into a pension.

In certain inactive situations, for example if you are unemployed, on maternity leave or on sick leave, you will still get retirement points.

This is called solidarity within the same generation.

But how much will the point be worth?

Édouard Philippe announced that the social partners will fix the value of the item "under the control of Parliament".

"The law will provide a golden rule so that the value of the point acquired cannot fall", with indexation on wages and not on inflation.

But the value of the point which will determine the amount of pensions is currently unknown, and unions opposed to the reform, such as the CGT and FO, fear that it will serve as a variable for budgetary adjustment.

Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld



Aung San Suu Kyi, head of the Burmese government, came to the International Criminal Tribunal in The Hague (Netherlands) on Tuesday (December 11th) to represent his country, accused of the Rohingya massacres.

Mandated by the 57 member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, The Gambia said Tuesday that Burma has violated the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, a treaty of international law approved in 1948.

The Burmese leader, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, faced her accusers, particularly The Gambia, who represented Muslim countries.

"We call on Burma to stop its senseless killings, acts of barbarity and brutality that have shocked and continue to shock," said Gambian Minister of Justice, Abubacarr Tambadou.

Aung San Suu Kyi defended on Wednesday (December 11th) before the International Court of Justice, declaring that The Gambia had drawn up a "misleading and incomplete picture" of the situation of the Rohingya Muslim minority.

"Unfortunately, The Gambia has presented to the Court a misleading and incomplete picture of the situation in Rakhine State," Aung San Suu Kyi said Wednesday during a hearing she is attending to defend her country. She advocated for Burmese politics, recalling that the situation in the western part of the country is the result of centuries-old problems, with the Rohingya minority being a population originating from what is now Bangladesh. This is an "internal armed conflict", according to her.

While the 74-year-old Burmese leader admitted that the military may have used "disproportionate force" in abuses against the Muslim minority, she nevertheless felt that "genocidal intent" could not be "the only assumption" in the situation of the Rohingya Muslim minority.

She asked to refrain from any action that could aggravate the situation. and jeopardize peace and reconciliation. "Please bear in mind this complex situation and the challenge to sovereignty and security in our country when you evaluate the intent of those who have attempted to confront the conflict. rebellion, "she told the ICJ, the highest court in the UN.

Since August 2017, some 740,000 Rohingya have fled to neighboring Buda-dominated Burma to flee the Burmese army's alleged "genocide" by UN investigators.

Larry Ricky for DayNewsWorld



One day after a new day of protests, the Prime Minister spoke at length on Wednesday at the Economic, Social and Environmental Council (EESC).
From the very first words of his intervention, Édouard Philippe insisted on showing his determination by saying that "the time has come to build a universal system of pensions". "We are proposing a new pact between the generations," he said, promising to "preserve this unwavering bond" which constitutes "the social pact" of our country.

"The system will be the same for all French, without exception, instead of being organized by statute. The time of the universal regime has come, that of the special regimes ends, "he summarized.

He responded to his political opponents by assuring that "the ambition of universality carried by the government is an ambition of social justice. We do not stigmatize anyone (...) There will be no winner, no loser ".

Here are the broad outlines of his intervention :

1 ° French born before 1975 not concerned

Workers born before 1975 will not be affected by the new universal system, the prime minister explained. "Those who enter the job market in 2022 will integrate the new system. The 2004 generation will be the first to integrate the universal pension system from its first job, "he added.

For the others "the transition will be very gradual," he added, assuring that "all the part of career carried out until 2025 will give rise to a retirement calculated on the old rules" and that "only the years worked from of 2025 will be governed by the universal system ".

2 ° The implementation of a point system in a PAYG pension

The Prime Minister has confirmed the implementation of a pension system by points, not by quarters. The social partners to set the value of the point "under the control of Parliament", a value that should not decline since "the law will provide a golden rule that the value of the acquired point can not decline" with "a non indexation not on the prices but on the wages which in our country increase more quickly ", affirmed Edouard Philippe

3 ° The suppression of special diets

The phasing out of the 42 existing pension plans, including the special plans, will take place. "We will end special regimes", but "gradually, without brutality, with respect," said the prime minister.

4 ° A minimum pension at 1000 euros

A minimum pension of 1000 euros net per month for a full career at SMIC will be guaranteed. This minimum pension "will be guaranteed by the law to 85% of the minimum wage and will evolve like this one", added the Prime Minister

. "The universal system will better protect the most fragile French, who are too often forgotten in the system," he pleaded. Good news especially for farmers and women whose pension level is often lower than this amount.

5 ° A legal age at 62 and a pivotal age at 64

The prime minister said that the legal age of departure will be maintained at 62 years while a pivotal age will be introduced at 64 with a "bonus-malus" system. "To reach the age of equilibrium of 64 years in 2027, we will have to set up a system of bonus-malus that will encourage the French to work longer," said the Prime Minister.

Firefighters, gendarmes or the military will retain the benefits of age. They will continue to benefit from the bonuses. For carers, the thresholds will be adapted for the recognition of hardship and devices can be put in place to offer a part-time without loss of salary at the end of career.

6 ° The "rich" put to work by solidarity

"Beyond 120,000 euros annual income, the richest will pay a higher solidarity contribution than today," said Édouard Philippe. These remarks repeat the report of Jean-Paul Delevoye who suggests that these high-income continue to contribute beyond 120,000 euros up to 2.81%.

The draft law on pension reform will be submitted to the Council of Ministers on January 22, 2020 and discussed in Parliament at the end of February, said Edouard Philippe.

"The pension reform bill will be ready by the end of the year, we will submit it to the Council of Ministers on 22 January 2020 and it will be discussed in Parliament at the end of February," said the head of the government.

Jenny Chase for DayNewsWorld


The executive is working to prepare the ground for the expected statement by Edouard Philippe on pension reform. Each by distilling his little sentence. Asked about the protests that have been stirring France since Thursday on the sidelines of a summit on the peace process in Ukraine, the head of state reacted Monday evening for the first time since the start of the mobilization.

"I fully reassured Vladimir Putin by telling him that the demonstrations in Paris absolutely did not concern the pension reform carried out in Russia", replied the president ironically to the journalist of the news channel who asked him if the strike against the pension reform worried foreign visitors.

Then he added that "everyone around the table knows what a reform essential to his country is and what it implies to be carried out. It comes under the action of the government and the announcements that will be made tomorrow (Wednesday, note). I did not feel a great concern, I reassure you. ". Emmanuel Macron, despite the social movement, persists and signs.

The Prime Minister, for his part, also spoke, before members of the majority, before his speech on Wednesday. “It is not because I am giving a speech (Wednesday noon) that the demonstrations will stop. This speech will even raise new questions.

And it's normal. There will be questions and there will be debates in the hemicycle on legitimate subjects ”, launched the head of the government at this weekly meeting, which is held behind closed doors. The Prime Minister is also said to have made "no magic announcements" that could "stop the protests" and "questions" from the French on pension reform.

If 76% of French people say they are in favor of a pension reform, 64% do not trust Emmanuel Macron and the government to carry it out, according to an Ifop poll published by Le Journal du dimanche.

In this "battle of opinion", the executive is also criticized from all sides on the method with which he has been carrying out his project for almost two years, marked by a vagueness which has exacerbated the concerns of the French.

"We will have a very strong job of explaining to do," admits the Prime Minister. A job that should have been done upstream ...

A question of method at a time when public speaking is discredited.

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld


The strike against the pension reform continues in public transport.

Thursday, December 5, 2019 at least 800,000 people had demonstrated throughout France so that the unions, perked up, decided to strike again on Tuesday, December 10, 2019 to obtain possible concessions from the executive.

The executive, for its part, leaves the door open to new negotiations. "There is still room for negotiation," said government spokeswoman Sibeth Ndiaye.

Monday, Agnès Buzyn, the Minister of Solidarity and Health, will receive all the social partners, with the High Commissioner for Pensions Jean-Paul Delevoye. Then it will be the turn of the highly anticipated announcements of Edouard Philippe, Wednesday noon, before the Economic, Social and Environmental Council (Cese).

Its reform project supposed to be presented in its "entirety", will be scrutinized to the point.

But what concessions could the executive make?

1 ° A renouncement of savings measures

For Emmanuel Macron the future "universal system" supposed to replace the 42 existing regimes will have to be "financially balanced" from the start. However, according to the report published Thursday, November 21 by the Pensions Guidance Council (COR), the current pension system should reach a deficit between 7.9 and 17.2 billion euros in 2025. It is therefore up to the government balance the pension insurance accounts by 2025 by advocating measures to offset this announced deficit. Among the avenues mentioned: extending the duration of contributions or setting up a pivotal retirement age at 63 or 64, with the application of a discount before. So-called “parametric” reforms, which the CFDT leader, Laurent Berger, the only government supporter, categorically refuses.

"If the reform is to be successful, it may be advisable to refer the equilibrium measures to the social partners over a longer period. It is not an emergency, ”explains LREM MP Sacha Houlié at a colleague's house.

2 ° Entry into application of the postponed reform

The Delevoye report proposes an entry into force of the point system from 2025, for the generations born from 1963. But the government has been planning for several weeks to postpone this date of application. On November 27, Édouard Philippe had indicated that people at “10 or 15 years” of retirement could be concerned, therefore born in 1968 or 1973. This would exclude the fiftieth anniversary for whom the reform would not therefore apply

This compromise, between the Delevoye project and the now abandoned idea of ​​the "grandfather clause" (a reform that would only apply to new entrants to the labor market), would seem "the right cursor", according to Edouard Philippe's formula

3 ° The revaluation of teachers' salaries

Faced with the strong mobilization of teachers (51.15% in primary and 42.32% in secondary), the Prime Minister and the Minister of National Education tried to calm the spirits by promising wage increases. Simulators have indeed circulated in recent weeks, posting sharp pension cuts of up to 900 euros per month if the pension calculation took into account the entire career and no longer the last six months before retirement , like today. “The universal pension system is not about lowering teachers' pensions. On the contrary, it is the gradual revaluation of their salary, so that their purchasing power does not drop, "tried to reassure the Prime Minister on Friday. The measure, which should be included in the 2021 budget, would cost between 400 and 500 million euros per year.

For some observers, however, these few concessions would not be enough to ease tensions.

“Macron is at an impasse. If he yields, his electorate from the right will be dissatisfied and he will lose enormously in this part of the opinion that he seeks to conquer. And if it does not yield, the presidential election of 2022 will be a referendum for or against this reform ", according to analysis Jean-Christophe Cambadélis for a colleague.

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld


If we believe the Elysée "the architecture of the reform" should be finally unveiled next week and Emmanuel Macron would say "calm" and "determined" despite the social movement organized this Thursday, September 5 2019.

For now, while the strikes and demonstrations against the pension reform began on Thursday, December 5, well inspired would be one who knew the content of the reform.

So far the government has given the impression of sailing on sight at the whim of public opinion.

In a large majority the French, 63%, support a strike that would not even panic the head of state.

"The Head of State is calm and determined to carry out this reform, in listening and consultation",

"He is attentive to the respect of the public order and the inconveniences suffered by the French", according to the presidency.

And continue:

"High Commissioner Jean-Paul Delevoye will conclude consultations with social partners at the beginning of the week and will speak to synthesize these discussions, then the Prime Minister will speak in the middle of next week on the general architecture of the reform, "said the Elysee.

And yet, today and in the following days, the battle of opinion is being played out.

While it is indeed up to Emmanuel Macron and his prime minister to determine the latest arbitrations, they will however depend on the extent of social mobilization in the coming days.

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld



Thousands of caregivers marched on the streets of the capital on Thursday (14 November) to warn of the rapid deterioration of the situation in the public hospital.

"The situation is even more serious than the one we analyzed," then acknowledged, the same day, Emmanuel Macron during a trip to Epernay (Marne).

A week later, Prime Minister Edouard Philippe and Health Minister Agnès Buzyn presented a large-scale emergency plan for the public hospital, exhausted after years of budget cuts. The first two emergency plans, presented in June and September, failed to end the strike that began in March and now affects more than 260 services.

This time the plan presented is worthy to save the "national treasure" that is the public hospital, in the words of Ms. Buzyn and to try to extinguish the fire before the day of mobilization for pensions December 5th.

The Prime Minister has announced an increase of 300 million euros more by 2020, an additional 1.5 billion over the next three years and also a partial but significant recovery of the debt of hospitals (10 billion out of 30 billion, or a third). The National Health Expenditure Target (Ondam), specifically earmarked for the hospital, will therefore increase to 2.4% from 2.1% initially set.

As for the Minister of Health, she notably announced a premium of 800 euros net for 40,000 nurses and caregivers living in Paris and in the inner suburbs, and earning less than 1,900 euros per month. Agnès Buzyn also announced an annual merit bonus of 300 euros which "will benefit 600,000 health professionals". The commitment bonus in the hospital career will also be upgraded.

But the announcements, if they constitute a first step, do not remain less insufficient for the collective Inter-Emergency which demanded mainly an increase of wages and manpower as well as a stop of the closures of beds.

With less than three weeks of indefinite strike against his pension reform on December 5, which promises to be very followed, the President of the Republic said he had "heard the anger and indignation" of the hospital.

And yet the mobilization is for now still called to continue: the collective Inter-Hospitals had announced a new "national event" on Saturday, November 30; and medical interns are also called to an indefinite strike from December 10 to denounce the "degradation of care".

There is no doubt that the anger, not extinguished today, caregivers also converges with that of the protesters against the pension reform on December 5. An aggregation of dangerous discontent ... for the government.

Garett Skyport for DayNewsWorld


The French state is about to give up one of its family jewels: the French Games. The entry of the FDJ on the Paris stock exchange is indeed set to 21 November 2019. From 7 November, those who wish will be able to subscribe shares of the FDJ .

The FDJ was born in 2009, but it all began in 1933. The state is inspired by the lottery of the broken mouths of 14-18 and creates the National Lottery. Since then, the brand FDJ has entered the heritage and its various games arouse passion for many. It is a successful company with a colossal turnover of 1.8 billion euros in 2018.

This November 7, the state puts the fate of the French games (FDJ) in the hands of investors. He, who until now held 72% of the inheritance company of the National Lottery, created in 1933 to finance the reintegration of the "broken mouths", decided to sell 52% on Euronext.

This privatization was voted in the context of the Pact Act and validated on October 17th by the Autorité des Marchés Financiers.

It should allow the State to collect more than 1 billion euros (the operation could even bring up to 1.9 billion euros) to accelerate the endowments to the fund for innovation.

But at the price of selling off our family jewels however and to tax the gains ...

And do not we also deprive ourselves of "an annual return of 100 million euros for a one shot of a billion.

As denounced by Christian Eckert, former Secretary of State for Budget between 2014 and 2017 ?

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



The British government announced on Saturday, November 2, 2019, suspending hydraulic fracturing to extract shale gas from the subsoil because of the risk of earthquakes, reversing this unpopular topic at the very beginning of the election campaign. .

A moratorium on hydraulic fracturing

This decision, which comes at the beginning of the election campaign launched by Boris Johnson for early elections on December 12, was taken after the report of an incident last August on a site controlled by the British energy group.

Cuadrilla near Blackpool, in the north of England, where a magnitude 2.9 earthquake shook homes "After reviewing the OGA report (...), it is clear that we do not can not rule out new unacceptable consequences for the local population, "said the Minister responsible for Enterprise and Energy, Andrea Leadsom, in a statement. "For this reason, I concluded that we should introduce a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in England with immediate effect," she said.

Strong mobilization of environmentalists

The process of hydraulic fracturing, which consists of creating underground cracks and infiltrating a mixture of water, sand and chemicals to extract gas or oil captured in the rock, was denounced by environmentalists. They consider that this technique runs counter to the United Kingdom's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Several hundred protesters have also been arrested in recent years. years of attempting to disrupt Cuadrilla operations as part of an "anti-fracking" movement.

For less energy dependence

The United Kingdom initially wanted to follow the example of the United States, where the shale industry has experienced a spectacular boom boosting the country's energy independence, thanks to the technique of hydraulic fracturing. Boris Johnson had in the past indicated his support for the industry, which was keen to significantly reduce the country's dependence on imports of natural gas - from Norway and Qatar - used to heat 80% of British homes.

The Conservative government had expected 2016 to open 20 wells by mid-2020. However, to date, only three have been drilled, with no shale gas exploitation having started and without the authorities knowing what quantities could be extracted in the long term. The Preston New Road site is the only hydraulic fracturing project underway in the UK.

The other nations of the United Kingdom - Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland - are opposed to the deployment of this technique .

At the start of an election campaign where the environment will be one of the star topics, Labor chief Jeremy Corbyn called the moratorium "an electoral maneuver to try to win some votes".

If he came to power, he promised on Twitter a "real change", with the definitive ban on this technique, as it has been in France and Germany.

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld




The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded on Monday to Franco-American Esther Duflo and Americans Abhijit Banerjee and Michael Kremer for their work on reducing poverty in the world.

The first two, husband and wife in the civilian sector, are working on poverty and have established their laboratory at MIT in Boston. The Duflo-Banerjee tandem conducts research as close as possible to the field, from India to China to Chile or Mexico. They observe how the poorest people on the planet make their economic decisions.

And this in order to define what would be the best policies to get them out of their condition. They introduced into the discipline the notion of real-world experimentation, thanks to random impact evaluations.

From this meticulous work, the two researchers questioned some ideas about the fight against poverty, such as the usefulness of subsidizing the prices of basic food products, the effectiveness of micro-credit, or the link of causality between the poverty of a country and the famine situation that can be established there. These counter-current analyzes, the duo Duflo-Banerjee developed them in a book, Rethinking Poverty, published in France by Editions du Seuil.

"I am delighted that social innovation is recognized on the same level as technological innovation," said the one who in 2012 was Obama's economic advisor on development.

Michael Kremer, a former MIT graduate at Harvard, published a seminal article in Econometrica in 2004, in which he used a commonplace method of medical research called "randomized controlled trials." RCT), to evaluate the impact of administering a drug to Kenyan children on their school attendance.

The principle of RCT is to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment by comparing the situation of a sample of "treated" population, called "test population", to that of an untreated population, the so-called "control population". or "control group." Michael Kremer "has demonstrated how powerful this approach can be by using field experiments to test various interventions that can improve educational outcomes in western Kenya," says the Academy.

The winners' work "has introduced a new (experimental) approach to obtain reliable answers on the best way to reduce poverty in the world," Göran Hansson, secretary general of the Royal Academy of Sciences, said in Stockholm. . Their research, along with Michael Kremer's research, has transformed the development economy, says the Swedish institution.

"Despite recent and significant improvements, one of humanity's most pressing challenges is the reduction of poverty in the world, in all its forms," ​​said the academy.

Some 700 million people still live in extreme poverty, according to the World Bank.

Jaimie Potts for DayNewsWorld


It is an extraordinary trial for an unprecedented scandal that opens Monday, September 30, 2019 at the Regional Court of Braunschweig (Lower Saxony, northern Germany).

In September 2015, the German group Volkswagen admitted to have equipped 11 million vehicles with fraudulent software to handle their emissions of toxic gases.

Revelations that provoked an avalanche of lawsuits against the builder and its leaders.

The owners of some 450 000 vehicles in Germany, feeling cheated by the manufacturer, then came together in a joint request managed by the consumer association, VZBZ.

The association, the only applicant, accuses Volkswagen of knowingly misled its customers with spyware installed in each of the cars and to skew the numbers during pollution control.

What does Volkswagen risk?

Specifically, judges will have to decide about fifty points, but the main question will be whether Volkswagen has "caused harm" and acted "in an unethical manner."

Even if it proved unfavorable to Volkswagen, the judgment will not lead directly to a refund. Each complainant then assert his rights individually.

For Volkswagen, the diesel scandal "belongs to the history of the group" in the same way as "the ladybug and the Golf", recognizes Ralf Brandstätter, head of the VW brand.

But he assures that the group has "profoundly changed": the manufacturer put 30 billion euros on its new range to "regain the esteem of society."

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld


British tour operator Thomas Cook announced on Monday that it was going bankrupt after failing over the weekend to raise funds for its survival.

A major repatriation

The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the government are on the warpath to organize a massive repatriation of some 600,000 tourists worldwide, including 150,000 for Great Britain, twice as many as in the bankruptcy of the United States. British airline Monarch two years ago.

They activated an emergency plan called Operation Matterhorn, named after a US bombing campaign during the Second World War. "Our emergency plan has resulted in the acquisition of aircraft from around the world - some from Malaysia - and we have sent hundreds of people to call centers and airports," said Transportation Minister Grant Shapps .

The oldest independent tour operator in the world

Born in 1841, the world's oldest independent tour operator has 22,000 employees, including 9,000 in the United Kingdom. Thomas Cook manages hotels and resorts, air routes and cruises. It operates in 16 countries and deals with 19 million customers a year.

In 2007, Thomas Cook merged with MyTravel to become one of Europe's largest tour operators, operating in Germany, Scandinavia, Russia and elsewhere.

The heavily indebted tour operator has seen its horizon darken in recent years because of fierce competition from cheap online sites and the geopolitical situation.

An abysmal debt

Thomas Cook had announced an abounding loss of 1.5 billion pounds for the first half, for a turnover of some 10 billion.

His fate was a matter of days: creditors asked him last week to find 200 million pounds (227 million euros) of additional funding for an already accepted rescue plan of 900 million pounds per year. Chinese Fosun, the largest shareholder, is validated. Marathon discussions were held all weekend, but to no avail.

Fosun Tourism Group said it was disappointed by the failure of an agreement between Thomas Cook, its banks and creditors, saying it had been favorable all along. The recapitalization plan was "no longer applicable given the judicial liquidation" of Thomas Cook, said a statement from the Chinese group.

For its part, the British Aviation Authority (CAA) has indicated that the Thomas Cook Group, "tour operator and aviation company at the same time, ceased operations with immediate effect. All Thomas Cook bookings, flights and stays, are now canceled.

London refused to bail out this flagship of the industry. Thomas Cook did not represent a strong strategic interest.

"It's a lot of taxpayers' money and it's a moral hazard," Premier Boris Johnson told reporters on his plane to New York. In one way or another, the state must stop intervening to save bankrupt tour operators....»

Jaimie Potts for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



La pression fiscale qui pèse sur les ménage va baisser, en net, d’un peu plus de 9 milliards d’euros pour les ménages en 2020 après une réduction de 10,2 milliards d’euros cette année.

C’est en le chiffre qui ressort du projet de loi de finances (PLF) dont la présentation est prévue à la fin du mois.

Comment explique-t-on cet allégement de 9,3 milliards pour l'année prochaine ?

Cet allègement fiscal s’explique en partie par les 17 milliards d’euros de mesures annoncées par Emmanuel Macron en réponse à la crise des gilets jaunes.

Dans le détail, la baisse de l'impôt sur le revenu de 5 milliards d'euros pour les classes moyennes, décidée au terme du Grand Débat, pèse lourd dans ce décompte.

A cela s'ajoutent la suppression de la taxe d'habitation pour 80 % des Français, soit 3,7 milliards d'euros en 2020, et la défiscalisation des heures supplémentaires qui devrait réduire la facture fiscale de 800 millions d'euros l'an prochain.

À l’inverse, certaines taxes vont augmenter . Ainsi, la hausse de la fiscalité pesant sur le tabac devrait rapporter 500 millions d’euros à l’État.

Par ailleurs, les mesures de restriction du CITE (crédit d’impôt pour la transition énergétique) généreront quelque 100 millions d’euros de recettes.

Les baisses d’impôts promises confirment le virage emprunté par le gouvernement après la crise des gilets jaunes alors que la pression fiscale n’avait diminué que de 1,1 milliard d’euros en 2018.

Cette nouvelle réduction d’impôts porte à 20,6 milliards d’euros la baisse des prélèvements obligatoires depuis le début du quinquennat.

Sur le quinquennat, le gouvernement a promis une baisse de 27 milliards.

Garett Skyport pour DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.



Au G7, la France s'est dépêchée d’apaiser la colère des Etats-Unis sur la taxation du numérique face aux menaces brandies par Donald Trump.

Et si victoire politique il y a, elle revient surtout à Donald Trump : les États-Unis ont en effet obtenu de la France une concession sur la taxe Gafa, sans renoncer officiellement à surtaxer le vin français à l'export, ce qui était pourtant l'objectif d'Emmanuel Macron.

Paris propose en effet de rembourser aux entreprises la différence entre sa taxation du numérique et la future imposition internationale de l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE).

L'OCDE travaille depuis 2011 sur une réforme de la fiscalité internationale pour stopper la réduction de l'assiette fiscale des États, incapables, en raison de la territorialité et de l'optimisation fiscale, de taxer efficacement les activités numériques des entreprises.Au G20 Finances de Fukuoka (Japon), début juin, l'OCDE a obtenu l'engagement des principales économies mondiales de se mettre d'accord sur une seule piste commune d'ici au prochain G20 Finances prévu à Washington, en octobre, avec l'objectif de parvenir à un accord mondial en 2020.

Or votée à Paris le 11 juillet 2019, la taxe de la France, faisant cavalier seul en attendant les résultats de l'OCDE , dite « taxe GAFA », est accusée par Washington de « discriminer » les géants américains du numérique que sont Google, Amazon, Apple et Facebook et l'Amérique a brandi la menace de mesure de rétorsion, notamment en taxant davantage encore le vin français à l'export.

Aussi dimanche 25 août a été élaborée une solution de compromis, lors d’une réunion à Biarritz entre le ministre français de l’économie, Bruno Le Maire, son homologue américain, Steven Mnuchin, et le conseiller économique de Donald Trump, Larry Kudlow.

« Tout ce qui aura été versé en excédent à la France par rapport à la solution internationale viendra en déduction pour les entreprises ».

M.Trump et M. Macron sont tombés d'accord sur cet arrangement commun.

Mais Paris s’était déjà engagé de longue date à démanteler sa taxe « imparfaite », qui porte notamment sur la publicité ciblée en ligne, la vente de données à des fins publicitaires et la mise en relation des internautes par les plates-formes, dès qu’une solution multilatérale sera trouvée.

En acceptant de rembourser éventuellement les Gafa en cas de trop-perçu, Emmanuel Macron espérait ainsi pousser Donald Trump à lever ses menaces de surtaxer le vin français à l'export en représailles de l'initiative française. Mais le président américain ne lui a pas fait ce cadeau.

Interrogé sur le sujet, Donald Trump s'est contenté de plaisanter sur le goût de son épouse pour le vin français !!

La proposition adoptée dimanche n'est donc qu'une concession de Paris afin d’éviter des représailles commerciales de la part des Etats-Unis.

Simon Freeman pour DayNewsWorld



The Trump administration is responding to the French GAFA tax.

America reacts with one voice. Republicans and Democrats are united against a measure of "racketeering" on the part of France, this is what we can hear from all sides in the ruling class and politics in the US! Taxation of GAFA by France: Trump do not go four ways. He threatens to replicate "the stupidity of Macron." US President Donald Trump has directly attacked his French counterpart Emmanuel Macron on Twitter, following his will to tax the GAFA, these American giants of tech (Google - Amazon - Facebook - Apple). He states that "if someone were to tax them, it would be their country of origin, that is to say the USA".

On the social network, Donald Trump also announces a "substantial reciprocal action against the stupidity of Macron", apparently by attacking French wines, in a thinly veiled threat: "I've always said that American wine is better than French, "he concludes in his tweet.

Donald J. Trump


France just put a digital tax on our great American technology companies. If anybody taxes them, it should be their home Country, the USA. We will announce a substantial reciprocal action on Macron's foolishness shortly. I've always said American wine is better than French wine!

The White House's chief economic advisor, Larry Kudlow, also spoke on the issue. He said Friday that the French tax on the digital giants (Gafa) was "a very, very big mistake." "We are not happy that France has gone ahead with this kind of tax on digital Said Mr. Kudlow.

He added that hearings would be held in August as part of the investigation launched by the Trade Representative (USTR) against this French initiative. President Donald Trump will then decide whether to "retaliate," Kudlow told CNBC.

The so-called Gafa tax, acronym for digital giants Google, Amazon, Facebook and Apple, creates a taxation of large companies in the sector not on earnings, often consolidated in countries with very low taxation like Ireland, but on turnover, pending harmonization of rules at the OECD level.

Robert Lighthizer the US representative for trade, had already announced Wednesday, July 10, 2019, the opening of an investigation against France in retaliation for the so-called GAFA tax (for Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon), which must levy 3 % of revenues generated in France by some operators offering digital services

The United Kingdom had already measured how difficult it would be to negotiate any Donald Trump free trade agreement with the United States after Brexit.

Emmanuel Macron French President and his Minister of Economy and Finance, Bruno Le Maire, will experience the difficulty of attacking Washington alone.

Paris puts forward its sovereignty, but the GAFA tax in the French seems to be mainly a desperate maneuver to bring revenue into the coffers of a country that does not seem to understand that too much taxation kills taxation and that measures of economy must be part of the reflections that the French state must impose!

The French Minister of Economy, Bruno Le Maire, reacted Thursday, July 11, 2019 by saying that allied countries had to settle their "differences other than by threat" and added to the Senate that "France is a sovereign state, it decides sovereignty of its tax provisions, and will continue to make sovereign decisions on its tax decisions ".

The GAFA tax is structured as follows:

The companies concerned must achieve 750 million euros in sales, including 25 million euros in France.

The tax affects about thirty companies, including GAFA, but also European and Chinese companies and only one French, Criteo.

The law is retroactive and it can lead to double taxation is intolerable and contrary to any tax ethics in a democracy that respects !!

Unanimous senators as a whole (Republicans as Democrats) and members of the administration of our President Donald Trump urge France to go back with the introduction of this tax failing which the response of the United States and retaliation are going to be terrible and will hurt a lot !!!

Simon Freeman for DayNewsWorld


The draft law on the ratification of Ceta is voted today in France. Since its provisional application in 2017, this free trade agreement has focused criticism. It has just been ratified by parliament.

Due to the protests of the opposition, the vote on the draft law of ratification of Ceta has been rejected by the deputies of the National Assembly and was the subject of a public ballot, Tuesday, July 23.

The points of tension concern in particular the health, agricultural and environmental risks.

Free Trade Agreement Between Canada and the European Union

This is a free trade agreement between Canada and the European Union. Negotiated since 2009, the text was signed in 2016 by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and European Council President Donald Tusk. The Ceta (for Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement) is applied temporarily since 2017, only on its commercial aspect. Its full implementation requires the ratification of all States.

The so-called "new generation" CETA, which is a comprehensive economic and trade agreement (CETA), thus greatly reduces tariff and non-tariff barriers, but also addresses many aspects related to the export of goods. goods and services and the creation of a stable and favorable investment framework for European and Canadian companies.

Why Canada?

Canada is a major trading partner of the EU at the 12th rank of the EU's trade relations, while the EU is Canada's second largest trading partner after the United States. The volume of goods exchanges between the two partners amounts to nearly 60 billion euros per year. The EU mainly exports machinery, transport equipment and chemicals to Canada. Commercial services accounted for almost 26 billion euros (in 2012), mainly transport, travel and insurance services.

In addition, Canada and the EU have a close investment relationship, with Canada being the fourth largest foreign investor in the EU with more than 142 billion euros (in 2012) while the EU is the second largest investor in Canada with nearly 260 billion euros (in 2012).

Faced with a growing protectionism?

"In these times of uncertainty, with increasing protectionism around the world, Ceta underlines our strong commitment to sustainable trade," said EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmström after the vote on the agreement to the European Parliament. "Nothing in this agreement" will affect "the safety of the food we eat or the products we buy, nor will it lead to the privatization of public services," she argued.

The main objective is to lower trade barriers. Specifically, tariffs will be removed on 98% of goods traded. The agreement also plans to expand certain services to competition and to strengthen regulatory cooperation between the two zones. Another important point is the recognition by Canada of 145 protected geographical indications (PDIs), 42 of which are French. Mostly cheeses.

CETA critics

Since its implementation, Ceta has focused criticism. Yesterday, Nicolas Hulot did not he asked the deputies not to ratify an agreement which would reinforce "one of the worst students of the G20" in environmental matter?

Doubts about a "lowering of sanitary standards" were also expressed. Unlike the European Union, Canada allows the breeding of beef fed with antibiotics or animal meal.

In early July, a few days before the vote, the debate crystallized on animal meal, banned in Europe after they caused the crisis of "mad cow" or bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

A hole in the legislation actually allows Canadian ranchers to feed their oxen with flours made from what remains of their fellow slaughtered animals - the blood, the hair, the fat - and at the slaughterhouses. send to the European soil without the consumer being informed. The Canadian authorities also acknowledged on July 19 to Agra Presse that, "despite a prohibition in principle of ruminant feed based on ruminant flours, Canadian legislation allows the use of certain proteins, such as blood meal and gelatin ".

Finally, the arbitration tribunals provided for in the agreement remain highly controversial. These allow a private company to attack a state, if it feels aggrieved by regulations too vigorous.

For the opponents of Ceta this agreement is anti-democratic, too favorable to the multinationals, dangerous for the European agriculture and light on the environment. For now, the government has tried to provide a guarantee by negotiating a "climate veto".

Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, Secretary of State to the Minister of Europe, welcomes a "6.5% increase in French exports" in Canada, between 2017 and 2018. Peaks of 10% have been achieved, especially for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In contrast, Canada's exports to the EU fell by 3% and as much as 9% to France.

In a study, the Center for Prospective Studies and International Information relativizes the economic impact of Ceta. It calculates the variations due to the treaty at 0.5% for most sectors in France. The other effects, especially on greenhouse gas emissions, are still unclear.

Britney Delsey for DayNewsWorld


It was on their arrival that Conforama's employees learned of the closure of 32 stores in France and the abolition of 1,900 jobs (1/5 of the French workforce).

To these job cuts, we must add the 100 provided in the Stores Deposits.

The employees of Conforma are stunned.

However, at the beginning of March 2019 Conforama's unions had expressed their concerns about the future of the brand.

In January 2018, the group sold 17% of its stake in Showroom to Carrefour. Private, n ° 2 of destocking online, thus collecting 78.5M euros.

Since the beginning of 2018, Conforama has had an ad hoc mandate from a judicial administrator, after posting historical losses in 2017.

But how did Conforama get there?

Small history:

Conforama was born in 1967 in the outbuildings of an old farm in the suburbs of Lyon, thanks to the meeting of a furniture retailer in the North with a Bordeaux furniture manufacturer and researchers of computer savvy discount formulas.

Since the sign passed into the hands of the Agache Willot Group, Bernard Arnault, François Pinault Printemps La Redoute which in 2011 sold it to Steinhoff International for the sum of 1.2 billion euros.

The Steinhoff Group is based in South Africa where it has been headquartered since 1997.

It is by Markus Jooste that the scandal has arrived in recent months, a scandal of which he is in fact held for the direct manager following accounting frauds and embezzlements estimated at 6.5 billion euros by the audit firm Pricewaterhouse -Cojers (PwC) after an audit.

Judicial proceedings have been initiated by the Steinhoff Group which is seeking to recover $ 59 million of undue remuneration paid to its former General Manager, Markus Jooste.

Steinhoff, portrait of a silent group or the discreet owner of Conforama!

Even though Markus Jooste, who resigned at the end of 2017, is the subject of open court proceedings, the impenetrable methods of the Steinhoff Group, a heavyweight in furniture (the second largest group after IKEA) have remained the same since the beginning. "It's a quiet group, not show off for two cents," says Yves Marin, a distribution specialist at Kurt Salmon.

"They are makers and not speakers," he adds, unlike an IKEA. The evidence, no one yet knows why, the group, initially established in Lower Saxony decided to install its headquarters in South Africa.

We only know that Bruno Steinhoff, its founder, non-executive director of the Group since 2008 arrived in South Africa in 1997 after taking a 35% stake in the GommaGomma Group. Gomagomma has retained the name of the German group (Steinhoff) and Markus Jooste will take over the executive functions that he will retain until 2017, well beyond (after 2008) the withdrawal of Bruno Steinhoff.

Although the furniture market has become detestable year after year, the Steinhoff Group is showing a binge of purchases in Europe and the United States, purchases not always successful from 2011 to 2017.

Between bulimia and embezzlement we understand better why the Group Steinhoff and the French brand Conforama Group, purchased in 2011 today faces serious financial difficulties.

What we understand less, that is why in December 2017, the ECB (European Central Bank which Christine Lagarde should take the direction at the end of October 2019) has benefited "in loosdé" the Group Steinhoff of a colossal aid, via the Central Bank of Finland (the country is part of the EU and is in the euro zone) representing around 900,000 shares listed on the stock exchange at 0 (or very close to zero). The stock today is worth between 0.60 and 0.80 euro!

The operation, which was not denounced by any MEP, scandalized several bodies of the Financial Press including our excellent colleague Pierre Jovanovic. (See his press review at the end of December 2017).

Asked on the subject, Mario Draghi, (President of the ECB and former Goldman Sachs) justified the operation by indicating that it launched it to boost inflation and growth. Given the evolution of the stock market value of Steinhoff, the desired goal (?) Was missed.

As a result, the ECB recorded serious financial losses on this transaction.

The Steinhoff case has been coughed internally by the ECB and by its detractors who have never accepted that risks related to private companies are transferred to the public (the ECB is financed with the money of the people). The second question, and not the least one that has been asked and which has remained asked, is why the ECB has invested in a private interest transaction ... of South African origin! Is South Africa in Europe ???

A few months later the ECB sold out the Steinhoff file; but the question that remains always and still asked is why such a financial commitment when in December 2017, Steinhoff had a operating deficit of $ 4 billion.

What are the links between this unfortunate decision and the fact that Rothschild Bank has been dealing for many months with Steinhoff's recovery?

Finally, to finish, one will recall this maxim of Honoré de Balzac: "There are two stories:" the official history and the secret history where are the real causes of the events ".

Clara Mitchell for DayNewsWorld



Kevin Costner does not stop confiding on the 1992 movie Bodyguard.

In 2012, Kevin Costner made a startling revelation during a stint in Anderson Cooper's talk show: just before his tragic death in 1997, Lady Diana had given her consent to play in the sequel to "Bodyguard" .

"I assured her that I would take care of her as I had taken care of Whitney Houston in the first movie. (...)

She wanted me to write a tailor-made role for her, "he said at the time.

It is again on this film that the 64-year-old actor gave People magazine another surprising information.

In an interview given on June 28th at People TV, Kevin Costner, the Oscar winner for Danse avec les loups (1990), reveals that it was thanks to one person that he was able to talk to the Princess of Wales:

Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York and sister-in-law of Lady Diana.

"Sarah was really important. I always respect Sarah, because she was really important. I always respect Sarah, because she's the one who organized the conversation between Diana and me, "says Kevin Costner.

"She was so supportive of this idea," he continues. The comedian reports that the mother of Prince William and Prince Harry had, however, expressed some concerns about the role.

"I just remember that she was incredibly sweet on the phone and she asked the following question, in a very respectful voice: 'Are we going to have a kisses scene?' She was nervous because her life was very regent. "

"She asked for it very respectfully. She was nervous because her life was very controlled.

And I said, "Yes, there will be a few love scenes, but we can make sure everything goes well," he concluded.

At that time, Lady Diana was already divorced from Prince Charles but her life was still very regent.

The project of the sequel to Bodyguard will never see the light of day. He was well advanced since Kevin Costner said he received the "Bodyguard 2" script the day before Diana's death in August 1997.

Only one day before the death of Princess Diana in Paris, in a terrible car accident.

Emily Jackson for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Un marché intégré de 780 millions de citoyens-consommateurs est né entre l’Europe et le Brésil, l’Argentine, l’Uruguay et le Paraguay. Il s'agit de l’accord de libre-échange conclu quelques instants plus tôt, entre l’Union européenne (UE) et le Mercosur (Brésil, Argentine, Uruguay, Paraguay), qualifié par Cecilia Malmström, la commissaire européenne au commerce, d' « historique ».

« Je mesure mes paroles avec soin car c'est un accord réellement historique », a réagi le président de la Commission européenne, Jean-Claude Juncker, depuis le Japon où il participait au sommet du G20.

La conclusion de ce pacte envoie « un réel message en soutien à un commerce ouvert, équitable, durable », a-t-il insisté. « Cela montre que dans ces temps turbulents (...), des compromis peuvent être trouvés. »

Des échanges commerciaux gagnants-gagnants

Le texte conclu vendredi 29 juin doit permettre d’accroître considérablement les échanges commerciaux avec l’Amérique du Sud, en supprimant plus de 90 % des taxes que s’imposaient les deux continents. Il contient aussi des garanties pour contrer ses potentiels effets négatifs

Le traité de libre-échange prévoit « des baisses de tarifs douaniers de 4 milliards d’euros annuels rien que pour les Européens, soit des baisses quatre fois plus importantes que celles permises par l’accord conclu entre l’UE et le Japon [en 2017] », a précisé Mme Malmström.

L’accord éliminera à terme 91 % des droits de douane imposés par le Mercosur aux produits européens, ce que la Commission évalue en valeur à 4 milliards d’euros. A l’inverse, l’UE supprimera de son côté 92 % des taxes actuellement appliquées aux biens sud-américains qui arrivent sur son sol.

Les taxes aux importations de voitures (35 %), pièces détachées (de 14 % à 18 %), produits chimiques (jusqu’à 18 %), de vins (27 %) ou de spiritueux (de 20 % à 35 %) devraient disparaître. Fromages et aux produits laitiers de l’UE : ils bénéficieront, selon le commissaire européen à l’agriculture, Phil Hogan, de « larges quotas » sans taxes...

Pas moins de 357 indications géographiques, un record, devraient par ailleurs être reconnues et protégées par les partenaires sud-américains, du speck tyrolien au comté français en passant par le prosciutto di Parma (contre143 seulement dans le cas du CETA, l’accord de libre-échange avec le Canada).

A l’inverse, l’UE ouvre son marché aux produits agricoles sud-américains – sa concession la plus lourde – par le biais de quotas : 99 000 tonnes de bœuf par an à taux préférentiel (7,5 %), un quota supplémentaire de 180 000 tonnes pour le sucre et un autre de 100 000 tonnes pour les volailles. Au premier semestre 2019, selon Eurostat, l’UE a produit 13,7 millions de tonnes de bœuf.

Les pays du Mercosur ouvriront pour la première fois leurs marchés publics aux entreprises européennes ; une avancée décisive pour l’UE.

Des inquiétudes de la part des agriculteurs et des ONG

Le PIB de l'UE et du Mercosur représente un quart de celui de la planète, soit 18 000 milliards d'euros. L'accord, un des plus vastes jamais conclus par les 28, suscite cependant la profonde inquiétude des agriculteurs européens, qui craignent une concurrence jugée déloyale, ainsi que des ONG, préoccupées par ses conséquences pour le climat.

Le compromis comporte « certains défis pour les agriculteurs européens et la Commission européenne sera à leur disposition pour les aider », a concédé le commissaire à l'Agriculture, Phil Hogan. Il leur promet « une aide financière » jusqu'à un milliard d'euros « en cas de perturbation du marché » .« Pour que cet accord soit gagnant-gagnant, nous ne nous ouvrirons aux produits agricoles du Mercosur qu' avec des quotas soigneusement gérés qui garantiront qu'aucun produit ne risque d'inonder le marché européen », a-t-il insisté

Les négociations ont aussi été attaquées dans une lettre ouverte par 340 ONG européennes et sud-américaines, dont Greenpeace et Friends of the Earth, sur deux autres fronts : l'environnement et les droits de l'Homme.

Ces organisations, déjà opposées pour certaines aux précédentes négociations commerciales de l'UE avec les États-Unis ou le Canada, condamnent « la détérioration des droits humains et de la situation écologique au Brésil » depuis l'investiture en janvier du président Jair Bolsonaro.

Bruxelles met en avant que l'accord inclut un chapitre sur le développement durable, qui couvre « la conservation des forêts, le respect des droits des travailleurs et la promotion d'un comportement responsable des affaires ».Il fait explicitement référence à l’accord de Paris sur le climat.

« Les normes de sécurité alimentaire de l'UE resteront inchangées et toutes les importations devront être conformes » à ces règles, comme c'est déjà le cas actuellement, ajoute aussi la Commission.

Toujours selon la Commission, ce chapitre « comportera des règles claires et rigoureuses, ainsi qu’un mécanisme d’évaluation indépendante et impartiale de ces questions par un groupe d’experts »., qui n’est pas détaillé.

Des difficultés pourraient encore émerger du processus de ratification par chacun des États de l'UE ainsi que par le Parlement européen.

Andrew Preston pour DayNewsWorld



The government seems to want to play the game in terms of pension reform.

Building on the potential for future savings on old-age insurance, in the context of the vote on the next Social Security budget bill, the government is no longer in such a hurry to pass this law on pension reform. A law that aims to align all pension systems on top of each other, in a point system in which "every euro contributed opens the way to the same rights".

Having concluded the consultation with the social partners, the High Commissioner for pension reform Jean-Paul Delevoye has to return his copy until July 12.

But the executive could change the calendar by shifting from September to December the presentation of the reform cabinet ministers, according to news reports. And the law would then be voted after the municipal elections in March 2020.

It is because the reform is an explosive subject the government would already prefer to deal with the issue of "working more" first. No doubt: the French no longer have the choice to work longer to finance including the pension system, the decline of 5 billion euros in income tax, and dependence. Hence the idea of ​​introducing a "pivotal age" at age 64 with a dissuasive haircut that currently amounts to 5% per year. A way to get cash back into cash quickly without waiting for 2025.

Emmanuel Macron during his speech after great debate and Édouard Philippe before the National Assembly had warned.

On the other hand, the single bill considered by the high commission a year ago could be abandoned in favor of a framework law, that is to say a text simply laying down the main principles, calling for other laws, ordinances, decrees, etc.

One way to delay the deadline ...

The universalization of pension plans may not be for tomorrow.......

Jaimie Potts for DayNewsWorld


Considered the favorite to succeed Theresa May, Boris Johnson warned Saturday that if he became Prime Minister, he would refuse the UK to pay the Brexit bill until the European Union agreed to better terms and conditions. withdrawal. Fervent defender of a hard Brexit he promises to ensure that the country leaves the Union no later than October 31, whether an agreement was found or not.

The survival of the conservative party depends on it, he says. In addition, Boris Johnson warns Brussels, saying it would refuse that the United Kingdom pays the Brexit bill until the European Union accepts better conditions of withdrawal.

"Our friends and partners need to understand that the money will be kept until we have more clarity on the way to go," said this "Brexit" supporter in a Sunday Times interview. In total, the amount of the bill has not yet been precisely established, but it should amount to "39 billion pounds," according to Johnson, between 40 and 45 billion euros.

"In a good deal, the money is an excellent solvent and a very good lubricant," said the one who was in charge of Foreign Affairs, on the occasion of his first speech since the resignation of Ms. May Friday of the head from the Conservative Party.

The agreement between London and Brussels, rejected by the British Parliament, provides for the settlement of commitments made by the United Kingdom under the current multiannual budget (2014-2020), which also covers the transitional period provided for by the agreement. The text does not give figures for the invoice, but a method of calculation.

Great Brexit craftsman

Theresa May remains head of government by the end of July, until the party appoints its new leader, who will immediately become prime minister. Johnson is seen as the favorite among the ten or so candidates.

"Bojo" (54) was one of the great architects of the Brexit victory in the June 2016 referendum. He wants the UK to leave the EU on October 31, renegotiated or not. Appreciated by the base of his party, the former mayor of London raises, however, more contrasted reactions among Tory deputies.

On June 7, the British court rejected the prosecution of Boris Johnson for lying during the Brexit referendum campaign. Boris Johnson was accused of knowingly lying when he was mayor of London, saying that the UK was paying 350 million pounds a week in Brussels.

Fervent defender of a hard line on the Brexit, the former mayor of London also promises to lead the country with an "elite team".

"I really feel like I'm the best equipped candidate, not only to organize the Brexit," but also to give color to the Conservative party, he adds.

Britney Delsey for DayNewsWorld



USA President Donald Trump threatened to apply a 5% tariff on all Mexican goods as early as Monday if his neighbor to the South did not commit to adequate measures against illegal immigration.

According to the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP), more than 144,200 migrants were arrested or turned back in May on the southern border of the United States. An increase of 32% compared to the previous month and 178% compared to May 2018, and a record over the last thirteen years. The majority of these migrants are from the Central American "North Triangle" (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador)

After several days of negotiations and ten hours of intense discussions Friday on the issue of migration with its southern neighbor, the United States finally reached an agreement with Mexico

Mexico will step up control at its borders to limit illegal immigration, primarily to the southern border of the country, with Guatemala. What raise the threat of tariffs on Mexican products brandished by the US President.

The United States and Mexico snatched an immigration deal on Friday night in Washington, after several days of tough negotiations, lifting the threat of tariffs on Mexican products brandished by Donald Trump and potentially damaging to their savings.

"The United States has reached an agreement with Mexico. The tariffs scheduled to be applied Monday by the United States, against Mexico, are therefore suspended indefinitely, "wrote Trump on Twitter.

He added that Mexico will take "strong measures to stem the flow of migration" through his country to the southern border of the United States where police and customs are overwhelmed by the number of arrivals.

"This will greatly reduce, or eliminate, illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States," he said.

National Guard deployed on the southern border

The United States was of the view that Mexico was not doing enough to control its border with Guatemala, south of its territory, allowing networks to migrate to the United States on its soil. These are mainly from Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador and are only passing through Mexican soil.

"The deployment of its National Guard across Mexico, primarily to its southern border," is among the measures of the agreement, said the statement.

The figure of 6000 men was announced Thursday by Mexico after extensive discussions at the US State Department between the delegations of both countries.

Waiting for asylum from Mexico

Mexico should also have access to another US request. All migrants coming to seek asylum in the United States will be returned to Mexico until they are processed by US courts.

While leaving the State Department in Washington on Friday night, Mexican Foreign Minister Marcelo Ebrard called the deal "fair balance," noting that the US "had more drastic demands at the outset" . "Thanks to the support of all Mexicans, the imposition of customs duties on Mexican products exported to the United States could be avoided," welcomed Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador on Twitter.

The use of the commercial weapon in this case had worried the business community, as the economic relations are close between the two countries.

According to the Chamber of Commerce, the 5% tax would have cost American consumers more than $ 17 billion a year; 87 billion if the customs bill climbed to 25%.

Joanne Courbet for DayNewsWorld


Donald Trump on Wednesday (May 15th) signed a decree banning US telecommunications companies from using foreign material, targeting, without naming them, China and Huawei, which the US president accuses of espionage.

"Economic and industrial espionage"

In full trade tensions with Beijing, the US president has declared a "national emergency" to take this decree. Although not explicitly named in the decree, the White House targets China and Huawei in particular, thus avoiding "foreign opponents increasingly exploiting vulnerabilities in information technology services and infrastructures". communication in the United States ".

The text thus makes it possible to take measures described as "national emergency" against "malicious acts favored by the Internet, including economic and industrial espionage".

Huawei denounces illegitimate measure

The Chinese group has strongly retorted immediately denouncing "unreasonable restrictions [that] will infringe on Huawei's rights". Adding that to prevent the trade of its devices on US territory "will not make the United States safer or stronger" thus reducing the country to "substandard and still more expensive alternatives, leaving the United States lagging behind for the deployment of the 5G ". Huawei qualifies as "the unrivaled leader of the 5G", whose deployment on the US territory was totally written off by this agreement.

This is one of the most severe measures taken by the Trump government against the rapidly expanding Chinese technology sector, particularly in emerging markets in Africa, Latin America and Asia.

An essentially symbolic decree

For the world leader in telecom equipment, the impact of this decree is however more symbolic than economic. Huawei, whose turnover reached 93.5 billion euros in 2018, makes most of its sales in Asia and Europe. The American continent accounts for only 6.6% of its annual result.

But the Chinese giant, who intends to race in the lead on the 5G, has faced since November 2018 a wave of global suspicion on the security of its telecom equipment.

Its president, Liang Hua, also defended again Tuesday, May 16 against the espionage charges during a trip to London and, said he was ready to sign "non-espionage" agreements with governments.

Emily Jackson for DayNewsWorld



At a press conference, an unprecedented exercise since his election in 2017, in front of some 320 journalists, the head of state on Thursday hailed the "just claims to the origin" of the "unprecedented movement" of the yellow vests that has deeply upset the five-year since November 17 last.

But from the preliminary stage he warned that he had not made a mistake, thinking "very deeply that the orientations taken during these first two years, in many respects, have been correct". "The ongoing transformations and transformations needed in our country must not be stopped, because they respond profoundly to the aspiration of our fellow citizens," he insisted. He will not change the course of his policy.

The head of state was eagerly awaited by the "yellow vests" on the fiscal, social, and legislative side.

By his announcements of Emmanuel Macron he answered Thursday night the main claims carried by the "yellow vests"?

A drop in taxes but no recovery of the ISF

Emmanuel Macron proposed to reduce "significantly" the income tax, to respond to fiscal injustice at the heart of the mobilization of "yellow vests". This tax cut of around 5 billion will be financed not only by the elimination of some tax loopholes for companies but also by the need to work more and reductions in public spending. This tax cut should affect the first two tranches. Government to "define the quantum".

On the other hand, he voted against the reinstatement of the wealth tax (ISF), one of the main demands of the "yellow vests", presenting his decision to suppress this tax as a "reform to produce, not a reform for the more fortunate ". However, he stressed that the impact of this deletion would be "evaluated in 2020", with a view to possible corrections.

No citizens' initiative referendum, but a softer RIP

Emmanuel Macron dismissed one of the main demands of the "yellow vests" which demanded more direct democracy with the RIC. He believes that the RIC, as proposed, seems to "challenge participatory democracy", adding not to believe "in the Republic of the permanent referendum". However, he is in favor of "more room for referendum in our democracy". Thus, the head of state said he wanted to "go further on the referendum of shared initiative" by proposing to reduce to 1 million the number of signatures necessary to seize the Parliament. This measure would figure in the constitutional reform that the head of state wants to see return to Parliament "in the summer". Currently, the referendum of shared initiative, in force since 2015, requires the support of 20% of parliamentarians and 10% of the electorate, that is to say nearly 4.5 million signatures.

The introduction of a proportional dose

To avoid a crisis of representation in the assemblies the head of state said Thursday "favorable" to the introduction of a dose of 20% proportional to the National Assembly (against 15% so far ).

The president also mentioned a decrease in the number of parliamentarians (577 deputies and 348 senators currently), which would be of the order of 25% to 30%, as well as a limitation of mandates in time.

No recognition of the white vote, no compulsory voting.

If in a televised speech on December 16, 2018, the head of state had said he was ready to open the debate on the taking into account of the white vote, he finally dismissed this possibility arguing that the vote was not to make any decision. "White, that does not decide. It is too easy, it is the aggregation of rejections, "he said. He also swept the possibility of a "compulsory vote", that one does not "respond to a democratic crisis by the constraint".

Retreats reindexed

The President of the Republic announced that pensions of less than 2,000 euros will be reindexed on inflation from 1 January 2020, expected measure, but also that no pension will increase less quickly than prices from 2021 .

Emmanuel Macron also wished that the "minimum retirement" for a full career be increased to 1 000 euros, an amount according to him "significantly higher" to the minimum old age that he promised to raise to 900 euros, an amount according to him " significantly higher than the minimum age he has promised to raise to 900 euros next year.

He also added that he did not intend to go back on the legal retirement age, preferring the track leading to the extension of the contribution period.

Emmanuel Macron wanted the family allowance funds (CAF) to have the "prerogative to collect family support" and thus help single-parent families.

"These famous single-parent families are often these mothers living alone," said the President of the Republic, saying that "we can not rely on mothers incivility of their former spouses."

A "new act of decentralization" within a year

The president announced "a new act of decentralization" in the territories, which will culminate in "the first quarter of 2020". This new decentralization must be "adapted to each territory" and bring "on the politics of everyday life" as "housing, transport, ecological transition to guarantee decisions taken closer to the field," he said. added.

At the same time, Edouard Philippe will present in May "a profound reform of the administration" intended to deploy "more officials on the ground". The head of state also announced the creation in each canton by the end of the five-year period of a "place where we can find a solution to the problems", called "France services".

To do this, the president will certainly abandon the goal of 120,000 cuts in public service posts that he has set if the government deems it necessary.

If Emmanuel Macron does not exclude the reorganization of the public services he wished "not to have by the end of the five-year period new closures, no hospitals, no schools without the mayor's approval".

An "ecological defense council"

Emmanuel Macron wanted to set up an "ecological defense council" that will bring together the dedicated ministers to make the "strategic choices" imposed by the climate emergency.

Mostly, the "yellow vests" were particularly disappointed by what they call the "measures" of the President of the Republic. Some believe that he has only "congratulate" others think that his speech was "only theater".

In response, the figures of the movement call to take the street.

Britney Delsey for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Alors que les géants du numérique sont en moyenne deux fois moins imposés que les entreprises traditionnelles en Europe, les Etats européens ont échoué à s'entendre sur la création d'une taxe commune sur leurs chiffres d'affaires. Par suite, plusieurs pays dont la France mettent en place leur propre « axe GAFA » en ordre dispersé.

La taxe a cette semaine été votée en France en première lecture à l'Assemblée Nationale. Elle concerne les activités numériques qui « créent de la valeur grâce aux internautes français ». Elle repose aussi sur « la notion de “travail gratuit” des utilisateurs ».

Et au ministre français de l'Économie et des Finances, Bruno Le Maire, de le confirmer: l 'Hexagone commencera à prélever la taxe sur les Gafa à compter du 1er janvier prochain.

«La taxe s'appliquera en tout état de cause au 1er janvier 2019 et elle portera donc sur l'ensemble de l'année 2019 pour un montant que nous évaluons à 500 millions d'euros», a affirmé Bruno Le Maire, lors d'une conférence de presse, à Paris.

Car les géants du numérique profitent largement de ces écarts entre pays de la zone pour minorer leurs impôts. Car même si les GAFA (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon), et plus largement les multinationales de l'économie digitale (Uber, Airbnb, etc.), se déploient dans des secteurs différents, ils ont une particularité commune : proposer leurs services sur le web leur permet de localiser leur siège social (et donc leurs bénéfices) dans un pays différent de celui où se trouvent leurs utilisateurs. Leur modèle repose sur des algorithmes et bases de données.

Or dans les pays européens, les règles actuelles d'imposition des bénéfices sont fondées sur le principe de l'établissement stable. Autrement dit, l'entreprise paye des impôts sur ses bénéfices dans le pays où elle est présente physiquement. Une présence qui se mesure par le nombre employés ou encore le montant des actifs corporels : usines, terrains, machines, etc.

Si bien qu'en l'absence d'harmonisation fiscale européenne, les GAFA peuvent implanter leurs filiales européennes – et donc leur présence physique – dans les pays qui proposent les taux d'imposition les plus faibles, tout en limitant leur présence physique dans les autres.

Par exemple, Google France n'a déclaré en 2017 qu'un chiffre d'affaires de 325 millions d'euros et a payé en France 14 millions d'euros d'impôts. Pourtant, les seules recettes publicitaires réalisées en France auraient rapporté à Google environ 2 milliards d'euros, estime le Syndicat des régies internet.

Résultat : en moyenne dans l'UE, les entreprises du numérique sont soumises à un taux d'imposition effectif deux fois moins élevé que celui applicable aux entreprises traditionnelles, selon la Commission européenne. Ce qui crée des conditions de concurrence défavorables et prive les États membres d'importantes recettes fiscales.

L'idée est donc de taxer à hauteur de 3%, dans tous les Etats membres de l'UE, le chiffre d'affaires (et non pas les seuls bénéfices comme dans le système classique) généré par certaines activités numériques : la vente de données personnelles, la vente d'espaces publicitaires en ligne ciblant les utilisateurs selon les données qu'ils ont fournies, et les services qui permettent les interactions entre utilisateurs et facilitent la vente de biens et de services entre eux.

Une taxe ne frappant que les très grandes entreprises de l'économie numérique (et donc les plus susceptibles de se livrer à une planification fiscale agressive), celles qui réalisent un chiffre d'affaires mondial annuel supérieur à 750 millions d'euros, dont 50 millions imposables dans l'Union européenne.

Soit 120 à 150 entreprises concernées seulement: des géants de la tech dont la moitié est américaine, un tiers asiatique et un tiers européen. Les recettes fiscaless comptées sont conséquentes : 5 milliards d'euros par an, dont 500 millions à peine pour la France.

La France est petite joueuse !

Seule une société française, Criteo, en fait partie. Elle est l'un des symboles de la French Tech, fondée en 2005, et est cotée au Nasdaq, à New-York, où elle est valorisée à hauteur de 1,34 milliard de dollars au 9 avril 2019. Plusieurs ex-entreprises françaises devenues des filiales de groupes étrangers devraient être concernées comme Le Bon Coin, Rakuten France et Meetic,notamment.

Selon Attac cependant, 64% du chiffre d'affaires des Gafam échappera à la taxe. "Le projet du gouvernement est loin de résoudre l'anomalie qu'il prétend combattre", souligne l'ONG. Dans son rapport, Attac estime en effet à 9,4 milliards d'euros le chiffre d'affaires réalisé grâce à des ventes en France qui ne sont pas déclarées dans l'Hexagone. En moyenne, ces entreprises dissimulent 74% de leur chiffre d'affaires, avec des écarts allant de 58% pour Amazon à 85% pour Google, selon le document.

On comprend mieux dès lors l'acharnement de Bercy ! Mais les pays concernés ne pourraient-ils pas prendre des mesures de rétorsion? Si le géant Google a dit qu'il paierait, il n'en est pas de même pour d'autres qui ont vu leur valeur en bourse baisser à l'annonce de la taxe...

D'ailleurs certains pays se sont opposés à un projet du même ordre au niveau européen, dont l’Irlande. Et ce sont les Etats Unis qui ne veulent surtout pas d'une telle réglementation. Washington a jugé la semaine dernière la loi française « extrêmement discriminatoire à l’égard des multinationales basées aux Etats-Unis ».

Larry Ricky pour DayNewsWorld


While the French government seems reluctant about the citizens' initiative referendum, the Socialist Group in the National Assembly, for its part, announced on Tuesday that it had gathered the 185 signatures of parliamentarians necessary to initiate the procedure of organizing its parliamentary counterpart. what is the referendum of shared initiative against the privatization of Paris Airport.

Socialist deputies and senators but also the Republicans, communists and members of the group Libertés and territories, in total 197, have already given their agreement, announced the socialist deputy Boris Vallaud.

For the first time, the threshold of 185 parliamentarians necessary to trigger the process leading to the organization of a referendum of shared initiative (RIP) has thus been reached.

The provision is provided for in the Pact Act, which must be voted on definitively this week.

Of course, the organization of such a referendum also requires more than 4.5 million signatures of voters (10% of the electorate) in nine months to support this referendum proposal.

But between these two stages there is that, still very uncertain, the validation of the approach by the Constitutional Council. The latter must decide on the compliance of the initiative with the rules of the RIP.

"We did not want to commit the error that turned into a scandal, the privatization of motorways, with the privatization of Paris airports," Boris Vallaud told a press conference.

This is the first time that the measure, which was voted in 2008 under Nicolas Sarkozy, and entered into force under François Hollande, is launched.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld



Pursued by Japanese justice for several months, Carlos Ghosn has decided to give us in a video his version of the facts before just been arrested again. And at the same time to scratch the Japanese legal system that does not seem to have anything to do with a fair trial.

The rigidity of a legal system

It was first his wife Carole who gave us some details about the Japanese justice. "I was searched several times, I was in pajamas!

A woman followed me into my shower, my toilet.

I felt humiliated. She recounts in the Sunday Diary, April 7, 2019, when her husband was once again arrested.

She protests against the system and calls France to help, not so that her husband receives a preferential treatment but to have a fair trial.

"I just received a message just a few minutes ago from my fellow Japanese lawyers who have just made a very unusual decision [...]

They just wrote to Tokyo's chief prosecutor asking him - I quote - to stop torturing Carlos Ghosn, "said Zimeray, a lawyer for the family on April 8. "Technically, when you try to interrogate someone eight hours a day, including at night, including at night (...) it's called torture.

Since he was re-arrested he is under that regime, "said the lawyer, adding that the United Nations had an expression to describe the Japanese system:" the system of the hostage. An expression that is cold in the back.

Three bowl of rice a day and incessant questioning.

Carlos Gohosn's first interrogation took place on his private jet on the tarmac on 19 November 2019 on the tarmac at Haneda Airport in Tokyo.

It lasts three hours and sets the tone for the next few months.

Months of custody in renewable!

A new arrest warrant, a new police custody!

Imprisoned, the car magnate Carlos could see his wife only 15 minutes a day, in the presence of a guard and with the obligation to speak to him in Japanese.

Difficult to understand when neither of them can master the language! He was also forced to sign written documents in Japanese, which were only translated verbally.

No wonder the CEO's health deteriorates.

"The first week, he lost ten pounds. He had a fever. He was deprived of his heart medicine: only Japanese drugs are allowed, "said Carole Ghosn recently. He is fed only three bowls of rice a day.

For his part, Anthony Ghosn, son of the couple, denounces the interrogation conditions. The former boss would be subject to the question two to three times a day, sometimes very early in the morning or very late at night, and for one to two hours each time. In a video recorded before his arrest, the former CEO of Renault-Nissan reaffirms his innocence and denounces the egoism of some Nissan leaders.

"It's a story of conspiracy, conspiracy, treason," insists Carlos Ghosn.

"It's a story of conspiracy, conspiracy, treason." This is how Carlos Ghosn summarizes the case that has already earned him three indictments and a new detention in Kosuge prison in Tokyo. The former leader of the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance again denounces the maneuvers of senior executives at Nissan who allegedly orchestrated his fall.

"There was the fear that the next stage of the Alliance in terms of convergence would threaten some people or possibly the autonomy of Nissan, which in the process has never been threatened in the last 19 years," he says. "But this autonomy is based on performance," says Carlos Ghosn who says that some leaders in the current management felt threatened, because of the "poor results" of the manufacturer.

These leaders have played "a game very unhealthy," says the former boss.Carlos Ghosn sweeps in this respect all the charges against him, reaffirms his love for Japan, is said today "worried" for the future from the Japanese manufacturer.

Faced with numerous international critics, Shin Kukimoto, deputy prosecutor of Tokyo, protested:

"Every country has its own history, its own tradition, its own judicial systems.

I do not criticize the rules of other countries just because they are different, and I find it wrong to do so. ", did he declare.

Alize Marion for DayNewsWorld


Carole Ghosn had joined her husband in Japan.

She was in Tokyo, alongside her husband, Thursday, April 4, during his umpteenth arrest.

She could no longer leave Japan, her Lebanese passport having been confiscated by the Japanese police.

But it was not counting on the American passport that holds the wife of Carlos Ghosn.

Carole Ghosn, therefore decided to leave Japan to return to France after the new arrest of her husband in Tokyo, Thursday, April 4.

"The Japanese police had taken my Lebanese passport but I had my US passport left," she said in an interview in the Sunday Journal.

She would have felt in danger.

"I waited to see if Carlos was going to stay in jail or if he could go out quickly.

When I realized and the lawyers told me that I could not communicate with him for days, I made my decision, "she says.

"On Friday evening, the French ambassador accompanied me to the airport, he did not let me go on the plane." "Until the last second, I did not know if they would let me take off."

"I thought I was reliving the scene of the movie Argo, until the last second I did not know if they would let me take off.

It was unreal. !!! "

Finally France begins to realize that the situation of the Ghosn is most delicate and that Carlos Ghosn has the right to a fair trial ???

"Everyone dropped it, out of cowardice, including the bosses. It disgusts me. "Concludes Carole Ghosn.

Britney Delsey for DayNewsWorld


The investigators from the prosecutor's office went early in the morning to Carlos Ghosn's building on Thursday morning in Tokyo.

He was taken to the Kosuge detention center, where he has already spent more than 100 days before being released on bail barely a month ago.

Like what happened after his initial arrest on November 19, he can remain in police custody for up to 22 days.

In detail, before the end of the first 48 hours, the prosecutor's office must request a ten-day extension for a judge and then another ten days for the purposes of the investigation.

The court gives the green light in the overwhelming majority of cases.

At the end of this period, the suspect can be charged, released without prosecution (in 50% of the cases) or arrested again for another reason.

Once custody ends, if charged, the suspect can then remain imprisoned pending trial.

Alone against all ?

"A small team of intriguers" against a fighting man who calls himself "innocent", a French citizen who has doubts about Japanese justice. Mr Ghosn's lawyers want a fair trial.

A relentless ... A hellish gear suffered by the captain of industry that is above all Carlos Ghosn proud to have been at the head of the Alliance.

Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld
There are no translations available.


Les députés donnent leur feu vert à la privatisation d’Aéroports de Paris.

En effet l’Assemblée nationale a adopté en nouvelle lecture l’article 49 du projet de loi Pacte, qui prévoit de supprimer l’obligation pour l’Etat de détenir la majorité du capital d’ADP.

« On ne pourra pas dire que le débat sur la privatisation d’Aéroports de Paris a été escamoté. » lancé a le ministre de l’économie, Bruno Le Maire.

Mais l’opposition comme la majorité se sont inquiétés du fait que l’exécutif cède une entreprise « stratégique » pour la France en termes d’aménagement du territoire, d’emploi local ou de sécurité des frontières.

« Un choix stupide », « un sacrilège », la privatisation d’Aéroports de Paris passe donc mal à l’Assemblée. Même M. de Courson tout en soutenant le projet, a toutefois jugé « non recevable » le principal argument du gouvernement et de la majorité qui, pour justifier la privatisation, mettent en avant le « fonds d’innovation de rupture », une enveloppe qui sera abondée par le fruit de la transaction et qui doit servir à financer des projets technologiques (intelligence artificielle, nanoélectronique, etc.).

« Tout ça ne tient pas debout ! », a lancé également le député Les Républicains Daniel Fasquelle.

Petit historique

L’Assemblée nationale avait autorisé, jeudi 4 octobre, la privatisation de Groupe ADP (ex-Aéroports de Paris) ainsi que celle de la Française des jeux (FDJ), mesures phares du projet de loi Pacte (plan d’action pour la croissance et la transformation des entreprises).

Et ce au grand dam des oppositions de droite comme de gauche :dans la bouche d'Eric Woerth comme dans celle de Boris Vallaud «Renoncez à ces privatisations!». «Si nous avons une coalition d'opposition entre la droite, la gauche, les insoumis et le PCF, c'est que nous avons tous le sentiment d'une grande braderie des biens de la nation», a résumé Philippe Gosselin chez les Républicains

L'Assemblée nationale a donné, par 39 voix contre 7, son feu vert à la privatisation d'Aéroports de Paris (ADP) dans le cadre de l'examen en première lecture de la loi Pacte. Le régime juridique et le cahier des charges d'ADP ont cependant été modifiés. Ainsi si l'Etat ne doit plus conserver 50% des parts, la future privatisation d'ADP prendra la forme d'une concession limitée à 70 ans «pour ne pas conférer un droit illimité à un acteur privé», a précisé le ministre de l'Économie, Bruno Le Maire.

«L'État disposera d'un pouvoir de décision, c'est également l'État qui fixera les orientations sur le développement des aérodromes, c'est encore lui qui, faute d'accord, imposera la réalisation d'investissements nécessaires au service public aéroportuaire», a détaillé le ministre.

Histoire de ne pas commettre les mêmes erreurs que lors de la privatisation des autoroutes. Cette concession sera donc encadrée par «un cahier des charges strict et contraignant» fixant les critères - prix et projet - de l'opération. L’Etat retrouvera la pleine propriété du foncier et des infrastructures et les modalités de fixation de l’indemnité que recevra ADP dans 70 ans.

Le groupe français Vinci, déjà actionnaire d'ADP, s'est montré intéressé pour cette opération. Le gouvernement serait disposé à ouvrir la possibilité d'une participation des collectivités franciliennes.

D'aucuns redoutent cependant «l'actionnaire non souhaitable» en clair chinois.Les députés ont dans la foulée voté, par 48 voix contre 12, l'article du projet de loi qui permet le transfert au privé de la majorité du capital de la Française des Jeux (FDJ) , actuellement détenu à 72% par l'État. Ce dernier doit conserver «au minimum» 20% des parts. Le dossier de la FDJ n'est pas encore terminé. Avant toute privatisation, le gouvernement entend créer une nouvelle autorité de régulation des jeux.

Afin de se conformer à la réglementation européenne qui prévoit un contrôle public étroit sur les entreprises en situation de monopole, l’Etat pourrait en outre conserver une participation importante dans l’exploitant du Loto, de l’ordre de 25 % ou 30 %. Le sujet est sensible compte tenu des risques d’addiction et de blanchiment d’argent.

Pourquoi ces privatisations ?

Les opérations envisagées chez ADP, la FDJ et bientôt chez Engie peuvent au total rapporter en théorie près d'une vingtaine de milliards d'euros à l'État. (ADP : 9,5 milliards , Engie 7,8 milliards,. FDJ pas cotée mais valorisée autour de 3 milliards d'euros).

Le produit de ces cessions contribuera ainsi à alimenter le fonds pour l’innovation doté de 10 milliards d’euros créé en début d’année mais aussi à participer pour moitié au désendettement de l’Etat.

Face à l'opposition qui l'accuse sans surprise de «brader les bijoux de famille», Bruno Le Maire revendique de «redéfinir les rôles respectifs de l'État et des entreprises»: «Le rôle de l'État n'est pas d'encaisser des dividendes». Bruno Le Maire se veut partisan d’un Etat « stratège plutôt que rentier » , « un État capable d’inventer et construire l’avenir des Français ». Encore faut-il avoir envie de confier l’invention et la construction de votre avenir à l’État ?

Le gouvernement espère que les investisseurs particuliers souscriront massivement à cette émission d’action pour « redynamiser l’actionnariat populaire ».Il faut dire que l’actionnariat populaire fond comme neige au soleil....

Encore faut-il être convaincus des bienfaits d’être actionnaire d’une entreprise « privatisée »

Jaimie Potts pour DayNewsWorld



If it had been through the "judicial recovery" box (and its forced negotiations that lasted in time), the printing house Arjowiggins Security, of Crève Cœur (it does not invent !) Of Jouy sur Morin was liquidated in less 15 days, while it had a full order book until 2020 and it held to its credit, many High Tech Patents.

Never seen ! And for some, many, the suspect !

The suspect because the other units of the Arjowiggins Group (the Sarthe sites of Saint Mars beer or Besse sur Braye, Château Thierry too) who do not manufacture them strategic paper, have just been saved thanks to the takeover offer by the Scandinavian Lassabo Group, which has until 15 March 2019 to complete its takeover bid before the Commercial Court of Nanterre. The Norwegian boss, Terge Haglund has also come to greet employees (reassured since) of the two sites in Sarthe, last Tuesday, March 12.

For a better understanding of the sit uation, let us specify that it is the lawyer Thomas Holland, the son of the former President of the Republic who is in charge of the interests of the employees in the file of recovery ?

The suspect because it is the company Arjowiggins Security alone, which closed permanently January 31, 2019, while it was she who manufactured our greeting cards and our bank notes.

Arjowiggins Security also manufactured, for example, banknotes of Saudi Arabia and Israel.

The passports of Alexandre Benalla are certainly also out of Crève Cœur ...

This paper that disappears was therefore a very sensitive paper, strategic.

The company of Jouy sur Morin which had a knowledge of 400 years was de facto classified "strategic enterprise" Its disappearance will force the French State to have its official papers manufactured abroad, in Spain or in Bulgaria ?? A funny situation!

It is a jewel of the French industry that Emmanuel Macron and Bruno Le Maire have sacrificed, cynically and in the greatest opacity.

Jouy sur Morin's printing and making of technical coated paper belonged to Groupe Sequana until 2018.

The history of Sequana goes back to the creation in 1848 of the House Worms which became Bank Worms, well introduced under the Government of Vichy.

In 1997, the Worms Banking Group was taken over by the Agnelli Family (at the head of Fiat Automobile de Turin) after passing through the "nationalization" box in 1981.

In 2007 Worms refocuses on its paper companies and becomes the Sequana Company, of which the State is the majority shareholder.

Everything had started well, under the best auspices of the Lebard Family, whose father Daniel came out "rinsed" in 2007 from the dark "Rhodia affair", "the history of the biggest French financial scandal" in which the former Nicolas Sarkozy's finance minister, Thierry Breton was delicately mixed and also a story at the end of which the Swiss banker Edouard Stern was curiously murdered.

Pascal Lebard, son of Daniel, who previously managed a portfolio for the Worms and Agnelli decided in 2007 to take the lead and 22% of Sequana Capital. But the company, which before that date was profitable, sting quickly after the reversal of the paper market.

Fearing an "industrial accident at Boussac" Sequana becomes for the executive in place in 2012, "a political issue that risks igniting the timber industry and the Syndicate CGT Book".

But who was President of the Republic on that date? Guess? François Hollande of course, a François Hollande whose Secretary General of the Elysée at the time was none other than a certain Emmanuel Macron ...

To avoid dismissal procedures, the CIRI (Interministerial Committee for Industrial Restructuring) and the FSI (Strategic Investment Fund) then provide through the BPI (Public Investment Bank) 135 million public funds that disappear gradually asset disposals and restructurings. By its participations, the state nevertheless becomes majority!

But Sequana continues to lose money so that the Group is in a position to interest an investment fund led by Jacques Veyrat and his company Impala. For the record, Jacques Veyrat began his professional career at the direction of CIRI in 1989 ...

Impala makes a nice financial transaction in a round-trip lightning after which it sells in early 2018 Arjowiggins Security to a Swiss vulture fund, Blue Motion Holding Technology, which does not waste time and immediately empties the funds of the company. End 2018 Arjowiggins Security is dying.

Financial scandals after financial scandals, it is clear that the state, which has always held key positions in the company did not assume its role as strategist, even though he gave a lot of money (at total nearly 250,000,000 euros), found in the pockets of taxpayers. And the answer to the question that comes back in this moment: "but what did you do with our cash ?" Immediately appears.

This is why the "liquidation blitz" of Arjowiggins has heated the spirits, especially those 240 workers (who have a unique expertise) who began to burn roll after roll, every twelve hours, in the midst of the Yellow Vest crisis, the strategic paper in stock and the other 500 surrounding indirect jobs.

The feat of the future of Arjowiggins scandalized and questioned.

Indeed, Emmanuel Macron, like Bruno Le Maire (and all their clique) have today, according to our excellent colleague Pierre Jovanovic "the blood of France on the hands".

For reading this industrial haemorrhagic odyssey, we seek to understand why the state, which had the means, financial and regulatory abandoned this printing, physically as a military installation or as a nuclear installation, surrounded by barbed wire. Strategic enterprise requires!

Why the state did not immediately create a public agency or an EPIC, Public Establishment of recovery of this industrial gem ?

For Pierre Jovanovic, by liquidating this company, "these politicians did not act by chance". Emmanuel Macron, who did not show himself to Jouy sur Morin, would have, he said, "removed from the state any possibility of going backwards in case France decided to leave the EU and the euro". A policy of the burned land preventive in case the populists come to win the European elections of May 26, 2019 ...

Waiting for this date, we understand better why it is increasingly difficult and time to obtain a registration card, a passport, an identity card or a vital card. ...

But also, by delving into the details of the adventure of Sequana and Arjowiggins Security, we better understand why the Yellow Vests denounce more and more "the disappearance of public services", a criticism that comes first in the notebooks grievances of the Great Debate.

This explains that because in this example, the state is strongly responsible for this situation.

Clara Mitchell pour DayNewsWorld



Bernard Arnault is still the richest of the French. The CEO of the world luxury giant LVMH, Bernard Arnault, remains the first French fortune and the fourth world, according to the list of Forbes published this Tuesday, March 5.

His fortune is $ 76 billion, or 66.9 billion euros. In the French ranking, he is ahead of L'Oreal's heiress, Françoise Bettencourt Meyers.

The only daughter of Liliane Bettencourt takes "the honorary title of the richest woman in the world" with a fortune of 43.4 billion euros (49.3 billion dollars, 15th in the world rank).

Four other women, all heirs, are billionaires in France: Marie Besnier-Beauvalot, Carrie Perrodo, Anne Beaufour and Marie-Hélène Dassault.

The fortune of the ultra-rich continues to grow

On the third step of the podium, François Pinault, at the head of Kering, rival of LVMH. His fortune grew by almost 12% in one year to reach 26.1 billion euros (29.7 billion dollars).

Also in the high-growth luxury sector, we find the owners of Chanel, the two brothers Wertheimer, with an estimated fortune for each of them to 12.8 billion euros ($ 14.6 billion).

The fortune of the Dassault family is estimated at $ 24 billion, divided into four equal parts representing the four children of Serge Dassault, who died in 2018.

"The 2019 vintage of the billionaires hexagonal sees emerging two new trends: the club of ultra-rich is expanding and their fortune has continued to grow," says the magazine. Xavier Niel loses ten places !

"The most noticeable fall is Xavier Niel, the founder of Iliad-Free, who lost ten places, after a dark year on the stock market," said Forbes. He is thus 18th in the ranking with a fortune estimated at 4.1 billion dollars (3.6 billion euros).

In general, the bosses of the technology companies applied to finance "have come down from their pedestal, after bad fortunes in the stock market".

Boby Dean for DayNewsWorld


3.7 billion euros, this is the fine imposed on the UBS bank for illegal banking and aggravated money laundering. The heaviest sentence ever pronounced by the French justice in a case of tax evasion!

Accused of having established a "structured and old organization" to facilitate tax evasion in France, UBS is condemned to pay € 3.7 billion fine and 800 million damages to the French State. This is exactly what the National Finance Prosecutor's Office (PNF) required.

The Swiss bank has announced that it will appeal. Even if this conviction is contested on appeal, it is the heaviest sentence imposed by the French justice in a case of tax evasion.

It was the first major tax evasion trial in France that ended in an exceptional judgment both in its severity and the amounts requested.

The Paris Criminal Court on Wednesday (February 20th) sentenced the UBS bank, the world's largest private bank, to a record fine of € 3.7 billion. An amount equal to the sum recovered by the State from UBS customers.

The Union of Swiss Banks is sent back to the French courts for illegal soliciting and the receipt of money laundering aggravated by tax evasion, which means that it is suspected of having sent agents from Switzerland to France, between 2004 and 2009, to to offer French customers financial packages allowing them to escape the tax system.

During sports events, shows or stays offered to customers, contacts were made and many accounts were opened...

Jaimie Potts for DayNewsWorld


At least 18 people died Sunday in a double attack on a church on the island of Jolo in the southern Philippines, which remains a bastion of the Islamist organization Abu Sayyaf.

The attack comes two days after the announcement of massive approval, in a referendum last Monday, of the creation in the south of the Philippines Bangsamoro autonomous region, as part of the peace process with the Muslim insurgency. .

Photos broadcast by the army show the doors and windows of the cathedrals pulverized, its benches returned.

A photographer on the scene also saw many bodies strewn on the ground.

Five soldiers and 12 civilians were killed in this double attack, which also left 57 injured, the officer said. "It's probably a terrorist act. There are people who do not want peace, "he added.

Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte's spokesman condemned "a terrorist act".

"We will continue to the end of the world the cruel perpetrators of this despicable crime until each of the killers is brought to justice and put behind bars," said in a statement this spokesman.

The province of Sulu, to which belongs Jolo, a stronghold of Abu Sayyaf, has voted against the creation of the new Bangsamoro Autonomous Region.

The island of Jolo is indeed one of the main bastions of Abu Sayyaf, an extremist branch of the Muslim separatist insurgency. Specializing in villainous kidnappings, this organization was created in the 1990s thanks to the funding of a family member of al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden.